Teens and drugs: Drug use statistics and treatment that works

Here are some drug use statistics:

  • Over 80% of teens engage in some form of deviant behavior (1).
  • Over 50% of high-school seniors admit to having used drugs (2).
  • Only 10%-15% of the population develop drug addiction problems related to their drug use (1).

The question is:

If the majority of teens experiment with drug use, and so few eventually develop drug addiction problems, should we be focusing on something other than stopping kids from trying drugs? Continue reading “Teens and drugs: Drug use statistics and treatment that works”

Top 10 great things about being addicted

Here at All About Addiction we keep talking about fixing addiction and treating addiction given the suffering that addicts go through. But there are certainly some positive things that go along with being addicted and we figured we should point those out. SO here they is are top 10 addiction list:

Top 10 great things about being addicted

1. You get to do whatever you want whenever you want to do it – For many addicts, schedules are not an issue and consistent commitments no longer exist. This means that any given day can feel like a vacation. It’s a great thing, although much of it gets taken up by looking for drugs, preparing drugs, trying to get money for drugs, or recovering. Still – vacation time!

2. Being comfortable sleeping on a floor – This is a bit dependent on the specific drug (or drugs) you’re addicted to but it’s pretty common for addicts to be seen sleeping in bizarre places, positions, and clothing. Passing out on the floor may not sound good to you if you’re not actively using drugs, but it can’t be that bad if so many people do it for hours at a time. Hey, I once passed out half on a couch and half on the floor while on the phone!

3. You don’t have to bother yourself with family obligations – Not only has most of your family probably stopped inviting you to events because being seen with you embarrasses them, but when invited you rarely show up (see #1 above) so they stopped trying. Besides, not liking to be tied down to specific times, addicts would rather do other things (like drugs) then hanging out with family and having to listen to stories, eat food, or play with children.

4. People don’t annoy you with conversation – Whether because addicts seem aloof or unhappy or because they can smell bad, people seem less likely to engage addicts in random conversations. Of course, this doesn’t apply to other people you meet at your drug dealer’s house or the late-night liqueur store, but those “friends” can often tell you where to get more drugs, so it’s not really a bother (more on this later). Cops also don’t apply to this category.

5. Not having a boss breathing down your neck – Having a boss who can tell you what to do and when to do it can suck. Most addicts can’t hold a job for too long though, so they don’t have to worry about it. Granted, not having a job can affect you finances (as in cause you not to have money), which puts a damper on #1. Still, since you can be comfortable sleeping anywhere (see #2) it doesn’t really matter if you can’t afford a place to live. Besides, if you owe your dealer money, he’ll be breathing down your neck enough.

6. Pesky mortgage, rent, and car payments are rarely an issue – Money issues like rent, mortgage, and such are without a doubt one of the most troubling aspects of living in a capitalistic society. For addicts who have homes and cars, the competition between paying for those or paying for drugs can be fierce (worse if you’re addicted to gambling). Often times, drugs win, which removes the need to worry about it. As listed in the above points, not worrying about these things leaves you free to be on permanent vacation, sleep on the floor, or enjoy not having a boss… or job.

7. You can be late to anything when you’re an addict – Most people get yelled, or at least scoffed, at when late to events but not addicts. As we pointed out above, addicts don’t get invited to as many things and rarely make it at all when they do. Being late is actually a successful outcome for a drug addict. Drug dealers are often late themselves, and while they can be upset if you’re late when picking up, they’ll take your money and give you drugs, which is all that matters anyway.

8. Sleeping in becomes a way of life – We already mentioned that addicts seem to be able to sleep anywhere, but we didn’t mention that they can also sleep in late, or even all day. Meth addicts can crash for days and others simply don’t get out of bed or their room for days at a time. Of course, if you’re a heroin addict or alcoholic and have been using for a while, you may have to wake up in the middle of the night to get a fix because withdrawal can start within a few hours. But then you get to stay there as long as you’d like. Neat!

9. Not worrying about hygiene, looking good or fit – Vanity is for the meek and worrying about things like health, skin, hair, and showers is beneath those who are concerned with more basic needs like feeling good and surviving. You might be thinking already that given some of the above points about lack of work, money, and a reliable living situation, vanity might also be difficult for many in active addiction. You’d be right. The choice between brushing your teeth, taking a shower, or working on your next hit is not one that requires much thinking. Hygiene can wait.

10. Getting a group of very close friends that relate – Like in recovery, addicts tend to associate almost exclusively with others who use their drug(s) of choice. This means that your friends know, and care, a lot about everything you care about. They can recommend good spots to shoot up, places to get rigs, smoke-shops that are open late, and other relevant information most people would be stumped about. Those friends are likely also experiencing the rest of this list, so they can relate! Unfortunately, some of these friends might steal from you, lie to you, or even beat you up because they want your drugs, money, or due to a psychotic break. Nothing is perfect though…

We could probably think of more, but I think that this top 10 list gets at some of the most basic things that active addiction is great at providing. We’d love to hear more thoughts from people who are either still using or those of you who have quit. Family members’ thoughts would also be welcome but annoyingly they usually notice the “bad” things about addiction more often and that’s a bummer.

About Addiction: babies, bath salts, and prescriptions

Another week has come and so has another group of research and addiction news stories! This week we’re covering a multitude of subjects from prescription drug abuse to bath salts to ecstasy. It is important to stay current on news regarding addiction and recovery and A3 is here to help you do just that!

Increase in addicted babies- Recently, a statewide Prescription Drug Abuse and Newborns Task Force in Florida discovered that the number of babies born addicted to prescription drugs such as opiates has increased six-fold since 2004. This increase is representative of the nation as a whole, with addicted newborns quickly becoming a major problem. In 2011 in Florida alone, over 2000 babies were born with drug withdrawal syndrome, narcotic exposure or both. At St. Joseph’s hospital in the Tampa area, almost fourteen percent of the newborns were born with withdrawal symptoms.

Kentucky cracks down on prescription drug abuse- This past week Kentucky Governor Steve Beshear passed emergency regulations to fight drug abuse in the state. While the regulations are a bit controversial, they are only temporary until the state’s medical community can agree on and finalize permanent regulations. Besides increasing the regulations on clinics for administering prescription drugs, the legislation also requires doctors to use the statewide prescription drug-tracking database known as KASPER to prevent “doctor-shopping” by addicts trying to get ahold of more drugs than prescribed to them. This is similar to the New York version known as I-STOP, which was passed in the past couple of weeks in that state’s attempt to crack down on drug abuse.

“Zombie” Bath Salts as addictive as cocaine? Bath salts have become a hot topic in the media following so-called “zombie attacks” by users of the relatively new and unknown drugs. However, a recent study by Dr. C.J. Malanga has discovered the addictive side of the drugs. The study used mice to focus on the strength of pleasure seeking under the influence of certain drugs. They first learned to receive brief stimulation as a reward for spinning a wheel and had their desire to spin the wheel for this reward compared to when the reward was each drug. The study revealed that bath salts, which are different variations of the compound called cathinone, an alkaloid that comes from the khat plant, have addictive properties similar to that of cocaine.

Simple label change the key to stopping opioid addiction? With opiod addiction on the rise across the nation, many different ways of counteracting it are being discussed. One way involves changing the labels on prescription opioids, such as OxyContin, morphine or Vicodin, as part of an effort to curb prescription drug abuse. Wednesday, thirty-seven health care workers signed and submitted a petition to the Food and Drug Administration to do just this. However, this is becoming a discussion point for addiction specialists. While many agree with the motivation behind the petition, it is questionable whether it goes too far. Some specialists are worried that by removing “moderate” pain from the label and limiting the maximum dosage and  time period on the medication can be harmful to those who are in pain and truly need the medication.

Ecstasy and your brain- A recent study led by Daniel Wagner, a psychologist at the University of Cologne in Germany, has shown that use of the popular club drug Ecstasy may lead to memory problems. It is the first study to use people who hadn’t used the drug regularly before the beginning of the study. The debate over the effects of Ecstasy, or MDMA, has been heated over the years, fueled by the difficulty in pinpointing its effects on the brain. The study led by Wagner only shows impairments in memory, but it is significant in just a one-year period. The leaders of the study also plan a two-year follow up to determine more long-term effects.

Nicotine addiction in the brain: Teens vs. heavy smokers- A new study by UCSF’s Mark Rubinstein, MD includes findings pointing towards a lower threshold for nicotine addiction in teenagers than is currently commonly believed. Most programs that are meant to help smokers quit require that the patient smokes at least ten cigarettes per day, and anything below five brings into question if the person is even truly an addict. However, this study uses fMRI, or functional magnetic resonance imaging, to map out how the brain reacts to different images either related or neutral to smoking. It is known that when a person is addicted to a drug, their brain “lights up” in a way that resembles the drug use itself. When comparing how the brain of teenagers who smoke less than five cigarettes a day reacts to these images with that of adults who are heavy smokers, the data revealed that there is an immense amount of similarity. It seems that some early smoking can lead to addiction the same way heavy smoking does later in life. As a result, Rubinstein is already suggesting that we should try to get teenagers to postpone their initiation and experimentation with smoking.

 

 

 

More addiction cures: Early promise for Risperidone in crystal meth addiction

A recent open label study found some support for the effectiveness of a Risperidone injection, given once every 2 weeks, in reducing crystal meth (speed) use.

The 22 patients who participated reduced their weekly crystal meth use from an average of 4 times per week to only 1 time per week. The difference between those who were able to stay completely clean and the others seemed to have to do with the levels of Risperidone in the blood.

The nice thing about using an injection as addiction treatment is that it removes the possibility of patients choosing not to take their medication on any given day. Such non-adherence to treatment is very often found to be the reason for relapse.

This study will need to be followed up by placebo-controlled double-blind studies, but given Risperidone’s action as a Dopamine antagonist, I suspect that those trials will also show a strong treatment effect. The promise of medicines as addiction treatment cures always seems great, but I believe that at best, they can be an additional tool to be used in conjunction with other therapies.

The question will be whether the side-effects common with antipsychotic medication will be well-tolerated by enough people to make the drug useful for addiction treatment.

About Addiction: ADHD, diet, prescriptions, treatment

It’s a new week and you know what that means, another set of relevant addiction research and addiction news! If you care about addiction and addiction recovery, it is important to stay current on the relevant news and A3 is here to help you do just that! Read on and check out the links to see what has been happening over the last week.

The Long-term Impact of ADHD-treating drugsADHD is a behavioral disorder, characterized by inattentiveness and hyper-activity, which affects five to seven percent of children nationwide. Much is known about how to treat it and how the psychostimulant drugs used work, but until now relatively little was known about their long-term effects on the brain. A new animal research from Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, suggests that there may be no serious negative long-term effects on brain development of those individuals taking Ritalin (methylphenidate), one of the psychostimulant drugs used to treat ADHD. These results, which show that it is unlikely these drugs have any impact on drug use or addiction later on in life, are promising since a “sister” study conducted simultaneously at John Hopkins revealed similar results with slightly older primates.

Fighting addiction with a simple diet changeTo start the battle against one’s addiction, look no further than the food on your plate! From his research, Drew Ramsey, M.D. reveals that patients are much more likely to relapse and not get clean when they have a poor nutritional diet. He explains how the processed “junk” food people so often consume has been striped of their nutritional values and instead target the same reward systems in the brain activated by addictive drugs. In the end, the simplest changes may be the necessary ones to breaking one’s addiction.

I-STOP: Stopping prescription drug abuseNew legislation passed in the state of New York has created a new system designed to stop the over-prescribing of medications that are being abused at a rate high enough to kill one American every nineteen minutes. I-STOP, the Internet System for Tracking Over-Prescribing, is a real-time database that shows pharmacists patients prescription history in order to prevent “doctor shopping” for extra narcotics. Lawmakers are optimistic that this system will help save lives and can become a national model.

The Largest Health Problem often overlooked Addiction is the largest disease that often goes untreated. Approximately 16% of Americans over the age of twelve fight addiction; that’s 40 million Americans! More than twice as many Americans struggle with addiction than those who have cancer, and almost twice as many than those who have a heart disease or diabetes. And those figures leave out the 80 million Americans who smoke, drink and use drugs in “risky ways that threaten health and safety”! It is a large-scale problem affecting almost everyone either directly or indirectly. This article summarizes a 586-page report by the University of Columbia’s National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) addressing addiction, one of America’s most ignored health problems, with possible solutions.

The Effects of Decriminalization a Decade LaterEleven years ago Portugal, despite much resistance, decriminalized all personal drug use. This does not mean that they made it legal, but rather those found in possession of drugs would not simply be thrown in jail. Instead they would face a board of experts comprised of a doctor, a lawyer, and a social worker who would determine if the defendant is a casual user or an addict in need of treatment. This approach has seemed to have a positive effect on the drug abuse problem in Portugal. According to a European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction report, the statistics show that the drug use rates in Portugal are well below the European average and half that of neighboring Spain. Over the eleven years since decriminalization, Portugal has gone from having 100,000 criminal drug users to just 40,000 now receiving treatment for their formerly criminal drug addiction. Joao Goulao, President of the Institute of Drugs and Drugs Addiction recently announced,  “There is no doubt that the phenomenon of addiction is in decline in Portugal,” based on his review of the statistics.

NAC: A new, natural treatment for addiction When it comes to treating addiction, there are many different methods, all of which work better for some than others. Recently, scientists in the United States and Australia have been working to utilize natural ingredients to treat addiction. They came up with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine, abbreviated NAC. NAC affects the production of glutamate, which plays a critical role in the brain’s reward system that feeds addiction. Clinical, placebo-controlled trials of many different types of addicts, both substance abusers and behavioral addicts, have showed significant reduction or complete stoppage of drug use while taking NAC. Addictions including tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, gambling, and hair-pulling were all included in the study and had positive results.

See us again next week for more of the latest information about addiction, addiction research, and addiction treatment!

About Addiction: School, prescriptions, heroin and morality

It’s Monday and you get another great summary of news and research about addiction that have been making noise this week. If you care about addiction and about recovery, you know you want to stay abreast of what’s important and A3 wants to give you just that! So read on..

Recovery High: A new kind of high school: Across the country, new kinds of high schools are popping up called “recovery high schools”. At these schools kids and teachers aren’t just focused on grades, they are helping the students recover from their drug addiction and alcohol addiction. For teens entering addiction treatment, 75 percent relapse within the first year, often due to the return to the environment that facilitated the use in the first place. While the long-term effectiveness of these schools is still being evaluated, they are showing promise; and with the recent passage of the Affordable Care Act allowing for increased options for recovery, don’t be surprised to see these kind of high schools becoming more and more common. To see the video check out this link.

Prescription Painkillers leading teens to Heroin: According to national data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of deaths from prescription drug overdose tripled between 2000 and 2008. Experts point to the ease of access teens have to prescription pills, such as Percocet’s and Vicodin, from emergency rooms, dentist offices, and especially unfinished prescriptions in household medicine cabinets as one of the main reasons for the increase. These drugs have been found to at times lead teens to heroin, which provides a more intense version of the same high for a fraction of the price. As a result, in the decade from 1999 through 2009, the yearly deaths of people aged 15 to 24 from heroin overdose shot up from 198 to 510.

Heroin abuse becoming a national epidemic: Heroin use and death is still on the rise, exploding in use over the last couple years, fueled by the Baby Boomers. The Boomers increased use of prescription drugs can quickly lead down a road to heroin; once the prescription runs out or the cost gets too high, the more available, cheaper heroin becomes an attractive option. While its use has been increasing nationwide, the statistics from Oregon this past year give an example of the entire nation’s problem. Last year alone, there were 143 heroin-related deaths in Oregon, a 59 percent increase from the year before and almost the entire nation’s total from a decade ago! Marion County, in particular, has already seen more deaths so far this year than in all of 2011. Heroin is on the rebound, no longer a “dormant drug”, and, with its drastic increases recently, should be addressed sooner rather than later.

Addiction: Disease or moral failing? One of the most common questions regarding addiction is the debate on whether it is a disease or a moral failing.  A recent article by Dr. Marc Lewis addresses the question from both sides. He starts by pointing out the common critiques that “you don’t ‘catch’ addiction”, “you don’t treat addiction with medications or expect a cure”, and “you don’t ‘have’ addiction” like you would “have” a cold or other disease, in order to show why addiction should not be considered a disease. However, he then counters with the comparison to type II diabetes, which fits the mold of the earlier critiques, yet is never questioned as being a disease. In fact, having type II diabetes is not seen as a “moral failing” and it seems addiction is following this path and becoming more frequently seen as a disease rather than a moral failing. Truth is, addiction is likely going to continue being seen as straddling these two domains.

A cautionary tale of Fentanyl addiction: Fentanyl, a new painkiller, is becoming the next in a line of destructive and deadly prescription drugs. According to Dr. Michelle Arnot, Fentanyl is 100 times stronger than morphine and 750 more potent than codeine. The article tells the tale of a man who lost his “perfect wife” to Fentanyl addiction. Prescribed as patches to be sucked on, addicts soon learn to smoke them in order to get a greater effect. Shortly after her abuse began, the “perfect wife” was going through a month’s supply in under a week. This led to pawning her children’s and family’s belongings, turning her into someone no one recognized. One day, her husband came home from work to find her dead. Now, her husband wants her story to serve as a warning to anyone else becoming entangled with Fentanyl.

Helping siblings of addicts: When addiction leads to a fatality, almost everyone who knew the victim is affected. However, they are affected and handle it in different ways. Most people know about the grief parents feel when losing a child, and they are given support and programs to help deal with it. Siblings, on the other hand, have often gone overlooked in the coping process, largely because they do not grieve in the same way as parents. The emotional needs, and even physical needs, of addicts’ siblings can often be neglected in favor of the addict while they’re still alive and in favor of the parents needs after an addict’s passing. Now, programs such as GRASP (Grief Recovery After a Substance Passing) are popping up with the goal of helping these siblings cope.

Bath Salts – Pressing the Issue

Q &A – Dr. Adi Jaffe PhD Interviewed By Tony O’Neil of The Fix

“A man was attacked on the side of the highway, authorities find the attacker eating a the victims face, and only after multiple bullet wounds is the attacker stopped.” This Zombie-like behavior is common in Hollywood scary movies, but as of late the new “Bath Salt” epidemic has turned places is like Miami into a real life Zombieland, or at least that’s what we have been told.

UPDATE: We now know that the assailant in this case (Rudy Eugene) had only traces of marijuana in his blood and no evidence of bath salts use. However he was previously diagnosed as schizophrenic and we know that especially for those at risk, marijuana use is associated with psychotic breaks.

What are “Bath Salts”?

Bath Salts are a street name given to a number of meth like drugs, so we’re not talking about your everyday Epson salt here. Although drugs like MDPV have just been made illegal, most of these substances seem to be cathinone derivatives and are central nervous system stimulants that act through interruption of dopamine, norepinephrine and to a more limited extent serotonin function.

It’s very important to note that research on this is still in its early stages and so reports are limited. However, it seems that at low to moderate doses the most common effects for MDPV can be thought of as either meth-like or like very strong adderall or ritalin – so users experience stimulation, euphoria, and alertness. Mephedrone seems to act more like MDMA (ecstasy) than meth, at least in early animal research with these drugs. At high doses however, and obviously there is no one regulating the dose since these drugs are sold as if not for human consumption, the effects can look like psychosis. These are not necessarily very different from meth induced psychosis which can include panic attacks, severe paranoia, self-mutilation, and violence.

There are several confirmed research reports (individuals who had only MDPV in their system) of people injecting or snorting MDPV and developing severe psychosis, “running wildly throughout the local neighborhood,” foaming at the mouth and being combative when approached. Worse still, these individuals can develop severe organ failure, require intubation (breathing tube insertion through throat), and at times die even in the face of extreme medical intervention.

How do Bath Salts affect the nervous system?

These drugs tend to be sympathomemetic, which means they induce sympathetic nervous system activation – the increased heart rate, temperature, etc. This is also where they can be most dangerous even when people don’t develop the possible psychotic effects (due to organ failure from the hyper activation).

Can one become addicted to Bath Salts?

I think that there’s no question that this stuff can cause physical dependence. I personally know of a client at matrix here in west la who came in specifically for “over the counter stimulant addiction” to drugs like these. He was snorting, then injecting them and stayed up for days. Eventually he was hospitalized with severe agitation and mild psychosis. These high doses are almost certainly, based on what we know with meth and MDMA, also causing neurotoxicity (some of the effects irreversible).

What Harm Reduction model should be used for Bath Salts?

It seems that MDPV and mephedrone are indeed drugs worth worrying about, at least in so much as they are completely unregulated when sold “not for human consumption.” While their effects at low/moderate doses are not severe are can be thought of as related to those of other stimulants, at high doses they can be lethal and can certainly bring about serious negative psychological effects. I always think that there is some room for harm reduction when trying to get some control over abuse of such drugs. In this case, while it’s probably best to stay away completely, I would urge people who are going to use to be careful and not to use large amounts of this stuff before seeing how they react. The neurotoxicity and cardiac effects can be too extreme and may lead to severe irreversible consequences at high doses.

How can the media help resolve this epidemic?

Press coverage always makes more people aware of an issue than they were before the topic was covered. In this case, especially if we can sneak in some of the above harm-reduction messages along with the overall “don’t use this stuff” text we normally see, we might be able to use the opportunity to save some lives. I think, as I’ve said before, that people (especially kids) are going to be on the lookout for ways to change their experience no matter what. The question is how we react when they do things we don’t like and how does our reaction affect their future behavior.

I think that we can use the real information – possible death and psychosis, especially when snorted or injected – to alter the ways people use Bath Salts, allowing for a campaign that isn’t only looking to stop the use of the drug but that is focused on minimizing consequences. However it seems that the press isn’t covering the range of possible effects but is choosing instead to focus on the most outrageous. These types of scare tactics haven’t worked too well in the past for curving drug use, but it doesn’t hurt TV ratings so I don’t expect it to stop.

Will banning bath salts help?

I believe that in this case, as we can already see, we are once again going to be playing a cat and mouse game that congress seems happy to play. They’ll outlaw more components of Bath Salts (MDPV, mephedrone, and methylone apparently already are controlled) but new ones will continue to come out. To me, the question is whether we believe we will one day ban all psychoactive substances we have issue with or whether we will be successful in developing a strategy for dealing with their abuse in a way that helps recognize and intervene early.

I think that the banning approach makes it less likely that people with abuse problems, or even acute medical problems, will contact authorities for help. Worse yet, it makes it nearly impossible for us to get a handle on safer use practices for a specific drug as they all get replaced by new variations – often ones that are even more dangerous.

Although the press has made the Bath Salt epidemic much more like a Hollywood production than reality, there are issues that need to be addressed. I just don’t believe in scaring the public into action, I’d prefer if popular media were just honest with the public about these drugs so that people can draw their own conclusions.