Amy Winehouse dead at 27 – Drug/alcohol overdose?

Amy Winehouse, the soulful singer with the amazing voice and the troubled drug and alcohol use history is dead at 27, according to London Police. Sadly, Amy Winehouse’s celebrity has for the past few years been tied more to her drug and alcohol use than to her music.

No one has reported on whether her death is directly related to drug or alcohol overdose but given Amy’s history with heroin, alcohol, crack, and other drugs, it would not be surprising. This is especially true given her recent cancellation of a European tour due to what seemed like serious drug and alcohol use issues that just didn’t allow her to perform.

This is a sad, sad, reminder that addiction and drug abuse can lead to tragic endings and hopefully will serve as a wake-up call to other addicts who may be close to a similar end but can find the courage and motivation to change in light of Amy’s death.

College drinking and frats – A match made in alcohol heaven?

contributing author: Gacia Tachejian

animal-houseIf you asked college students in America what goes on at a Fraternity or Sorority party they would tell you that drinking alcohol is a major component. The movie Animal House made heavy college drinking a well known fact decades ago, and research backs it up.

Studies have consistently shown that the highest rates of heavy alcohol use and alcohol disorders occur in the college-age population. But who’s to blame? Although heavy alcohol use has been documented within Greek organizations, the question of whether the Greek environment fosters substance use or whether heavy substance users chose to be in Greek environments has not been researched until now.

In order to find out whether the Frats/Sororities were the main influence for heavy alcohol use or if individuals joining the Greek organizations were simply heavier alcohol abusers researchers recently collected data from 3,720 pre-college students who were then followed for the 4 years of college they enrolled in (talk about a lot of work).

Of the almost 4000 participants there were students who joined the Greek environment and those who didn’t. Also, there were students who were late joiners and students who joined but withdrew before they graduated. After looking at all the different categories, one thing was apparent:

Students, who at any given period were part of a fraternity or a sorority, drank more alcohol and had more negative, alcohol-related consequences while being a member of a Greek organization. Also, once they deactivated, those participants drank less and had less drinking-related consequences.

The real issue as to why this is so important has to do with the consequences of alcohol use. Problems like drinking and driving (and possible DUI arrests), alcohol abuse, alcohol poisoning, and violence are a serious problem among college students. Apparently, Greek Environments make these consequences more likely.

It’s important to note: If the only finding her was that participants in the Greek system drank more alcohol or were more likely to drink alcohol at all that would be one thing (this findings was also true here by the way), but the fact that they were also more likely to have negative consequences associated with their drinking suggests that interventions might be useful within this college-environment.

Something to think about next time you’re bored on a Thursday night…

Citation:

Park, Aesoon, Sher, J., Kenneth, S., & Krull, L., Jennifer (2008) Risky Drinking in College Changes as Fraternity/Sorority Affiliation Changes: A Person – Environment Perspective. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, Vol. 22, No. 2, 219-229.

Pathological Gambling- Is it an addiction? Part II

Michael Campos, Ph.D.

This is part II in Michael’s series on pathological gambling (click the preceding for part I):

The risk factors for pathological gambling

Pathological gambing (or gambling addiction)There are a number of factors that are important in pathological gambling including types and number of games played, alcohol use, and socio-demographic factors. Some research suggests that casino gambling, pull tabs, card playing outside a casino, bingo, and sports betting are associated with increased risk for gambling problems. In addition, the number of different types of games played is associated with gambling problems such that the more different types of games a person plays, the greater the risk for gambling problems. Alcohol abuse/dependence is associated with increased risk for gambling problems as well. Finally, socio-demographic factors (e.g., low socio-economic status, minority ethnicity) are associated with gambling problems even after controlling for gambling behavior. Continue reading “Pathological Gambling- Is it an addiction? Part II”

The brain-addiction connection: Alcohol use affects almost everything

Alcohol is the most popular psychoactive substance used in the U.S. and the worldWith statistics showing that at least 50% of adults in the US are regular alcohol drinkers (drinkers who have consumed 12 drinks or more in the past year¹), alcohol clearly remains the drug of choice for most Americans. While moderate alcohol use is not deemed dangerous, and is likely even healthy², it is nevertheless still important to know how chemicals we put in our bodies affect us. Many people know and often hear about alcohol abuse and its effects on the liver, the broad effects of alcohol use on other bodily systems, especially the brain, don’t seem to get that much attention. In the tradition of our other brain-addiction articles, we aim to do just that.

Alcohol use and brain depression

In a nutshell, alcohol depresses the central nervous system, causing the uninhibited, relaxed feeling that even the most casual drinker is familiar with. It does so mainly by interrupting brain communication – suppressing the excitatory nerve pathway (by affecting glutamate) and increasing the inhibitory activity (by affecting GABA).

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain – it’s the one that commonly turns certain brain cells on and increases their firing activity. When alcohol is consumed it inhibits glutamate activity, which diminishes the excitatory effect of glutamate and reduces important relevant functions.

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain – it reduces firing activity and generally turns targets off. When alcohol is consumed it enhances GABA’s inhibition, which is always present throughout the brain to some extent, by directly increasing the activity of many GABA releasing neurons.

In short, alcohol use simultaneously suppresses important new brain activity and inhibits ongoing function at the same time, resulting in an intense depressive effect.

Interference with these two neurotransmitters, some of the most common ones found in the brain, is the reason for alcohol’s wide-ranging effects, particularly on the memory, which depends on the activation, by glutamate, of two receptor types – AMPA and NMDA. Without them, there’s no learning- and no memory (blackout anyone?).

The effects of alcohol use on behavior

By interfering with brain function, alcohol use lowers inhibitions, allowing drinkers to be more outgoing (and willing to do things they most likely otherwise wouldn’t). Information processing is also compromised when drinking, mostly due to alcohol’s effects on the cerebral cortex (and glutamate which is responsible for everything from seeing, to hearing, and more). This is the part of the brain which takes in a person’s senses and thoughts, and helps with voluntary muscle movements. Alcohol use causes impaired thoughts, poor judgment, and a higher threshold for pain. What you’re left with is someone who is slower and less thoughtful, but feels stronger and smarter, all while experiencing less pain. This is, of course, a dangerous combination.

Alcohol use also can influence a person’s cerebellum and limbic system, which control coordination, and emotional regulation, respectively. We’ve all seen those brave-drunks – normally shy individuals who get a little liquid courage in them and are suddenly the life of the party, all while barely being able to put one foot in front of the other. This is a great example of alcohol’s effect on the limbic system as well as the cerebellum. When the limbic system is impaired, individuals often experience memory loss, especially when it comes to emotional states and experiences. Limbic system dysfunction can also lead to individuals experiencing exaggerated feelings (the “I LOVE you, man!” effect). Cerebellum problems lead to a lack of muscle control and fine motor movements – just what you want when you’re trying to steer a car at 65 miles per hour and stay on the road.

The alcohol-sex connection

Due to its effect on the hypothalamus, alcohol use also plays a role in decreasing a person’s sexual desire and performance. The hypothalamus, along with the medulla, plays a role in controlling many regulatory functions of the brain and body. The hypothalamus is the control center for much of the body’s hormone function and governs the autonomic nervous system. The hypothalamus is part of the system than keeps the body in homeostasis, a balanced state that can be considered the “baseline” of system function. In this role, the hypothalamus organizes and controls many complex emotions, feelings and motivational states. The neurons in the hypothalamus produce a number of neurotransmitters which give instructions to different parts of the body.

When this neurotransmitter function get impaired, these systems get depressed, which lowers sexual desire and performance as well as causing individuals to become sleepy- at which point sexual performance doesn’t really matter anymore.

A parting gift – what alcohol abuse may leave users with long-term

As we mentioned above, many people only hear about how alcohol abuse can cause liver damage. But alcohol can do so much more damage than that and since this stuff is commonly used as a solvent (chemistry class anyone?!) that’s not really surprising. There is plenty of emerging research touting the positive effects of moderate alcohol consumption. However, if an individual continuously drinks to excess, there are serious long-term implications for that person’s memory, sex drive, and overall cognitive functions that can, and for more than 27,00 people a year does, end in death. So if alcohol use isn’t a problem for you, enjoy your glass of red wine (or micro-brew), but be aware of the effects; if alcohol abuse is an issue, you might as well keep everything operating as well as possible and stay away altogether.

Citations:

CDC Source: Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2008, table 27.

Charles J. Holahan, Kathleen K. Schutte, Penny L. Brennan, Carole K. Holahan, Bernice S. Moos, Rudolf H. Moos (2010). Late life alcohol consumption and 20-year mortality. Alcohol Clinical & Experimental Research.

Alcohol – Blackouts, Brownouts and how they affect your body

Do you remember what you did last night? Have you ever not remembered what you did after drinking? Drinking alcohol affects the brain and can cause lasting damage including, but not limited to, slips in memory. These memory slips can be due to lack of blood flow to brain areas that are important for memory consolidation and are commonly known as blackouts. Contrary to what popular belief, blackouts often occur in social drinkers and don’t seem to be related to age or level of alcohol dependence.

 

Blackouts and the Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) rate

Amnesia, or memory dysfunction, can begin to occur even with as few as one or two drinks containing alcohol. However, as the amount of alcohol intake increases so does the probability of memory impairment. Although heavy drinking alone will not always cause blackouts, heavy drinking of alcohol on an empty stomach or “chugging” alcoholic drinks often does cause blackouts.

The estimated BAC (blood alcohol content) range for blackouts begins at levels .14%- .20%. Individuals who reached high BAC levels slowly experienced far less common occurrences of blackouts. Additionally, while blackouts lead to forgetting entire events that happened while intoxicated, some individuals experience an inability to recall only parts of an event or episode (these are often called brownouts).

Blackouts can occur to anyone who drinks too much too fast. In a survey of college students, males and females experienced an equal number of blackouts, although men consumed a significantly more alcohol.

Although brain damage could potentially occur from heavy alcohol consumption, there is no evidence that blackouts are caused by brain damage per se. However, if brain damage is caused from excessive alcohol use, some studies show improvements in brain function with as little as a year of abstinence. Regardless of the possibility of reversing any effects, alcohol use causes damage in different areas of the body (including the liver), and those damages have been shown to occur more quickly among females.

Co-authored by Jamie Felzer

 

Citations:

1. White, Aaron M., Signer, Matthew L., Kraus, Courtney L. and Swartzwelder, H. Scott(2004). Experiential Aspects of Alcohol-Induced Blackouts Among College Students, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse,30:1,205 — 224

2. Alcohol Alert (2004) . Alcoholic Brain Damage. Alcohol Research & Health, Vol. 27.