About Addiction: Smoking, Alcohol, Painkillers, Prescriptions

This are new, interesting articles about addiction. Check out the links to the articles, and give us your feedback.

Smoking and related issues

Health Day: Smoking increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration, a disease that robs people of their sight.

Reuters: When cigarette smokers quit smoking, chronic stress levels may go down. This should give smokers reassurance that quitting will not deprive them of a valuable stress reliever.

Reuters: A nicotine mouth spray may help prevent cigarette cravings three times faster than nicotine lozenges or chewing gum. This might help smokers who are trying to quit smoking.

Cesar Fax: The percentage of national tobacco retailers selling to minors appears to have leveled off. The average national retailer violation rate decreased from 40.1% to 10.8%, and stabilized at 10.8%.

wcstv: Under a proposed deal reached by Governor David Paterson and Albany legislators, cigarette taxes would increase by $1.60 per pack. In New York City, the price of one pack of cigarettes would cost over $10 in many stores. The hope is that this huge price increase will help smokers quit smoking and reduce overall levels of smoking in New York.

About addiction to alcohol, painkillers, and prescription medication

Hazelden: Abuse of alcohol, painkillers, and prescription medication is rising dramatically among older people. Signs of alcohol abuse and drug addiction are different in older adults than in younger people.

Science Daily: Religiosity can moderate genetic effects on alcohol abuse during adolescence but not during early adulthood. The heritability of an alcohol abuse phenotype depends upon the social environment within which it is measured.

Medical News TODAY: Sleep problems can predict the onset of alcohol abuse in healthy adults and relapse in abstinent alcoholics. Puberty is related to sleep problems and later bedtimes, which are associated with alcohol abuse.

Health Day: Exercise may be an effective treatment option for alcoholism. In addition, alcoholism disrupts normal daily circadian rhythms, which can lead to disrupted sleep patterns.

About addiction and mental illness

KansasCity.com:  To study drug addiction and mental illness researchers, at the University of Missouri-Kansas City, have received a $1.8 million federal grant. One of the leading researchers states that conditions such as drug addiction and depression are major problems across the globe.

Ellen and Gladis – Alcoholic and funny

I don’t normally like to make fun of the disease of alcoholism, but sometimes, you just have to let go and enjoy the entertainment. Check out this video from the Ellen DeGeneress show, in which she talks to Gladis, an avid watcher who wrote in. Gladis (the funny alcoholic, I wasn’t saying anything about Ellen in the title) seems to have resigned herself to being an alcoholic and seems to have a lot to say about pretty much everything. Apparently, she’s made many more appearances on the show.


One is too many, a thousand not enough: Does a slip or relapse mean the end?

Breaking news: When alcoholics who have gone through treatment have a drink after a certain length of sobriety, most don’t go off the deep end.

Slip scares and abstinence relapse

RelapsingThe old AA adage: “One drink is too many, and a thousand not enough,” refers to the fact that alcoholics who are sober are assumed to return to their evil ways after even a small slip (known as a relapse). This notion is meant to warn AA members to resist temptation lest they find themselves right back where they started. Or worse.

Most research into sobriety considers a person a success only if they remain sober throughout the study period. The followup periods last anywhere between 6 months to a year (or sometimes more). Have a drink, and you’ve lost. Game over. No one’s ever really looked at what people who have relapsed actually do after the relapse. Which is why the recent findings reported in the journal Psychology of Addictive Behaviors are so intriguing.

Recent relapse research findings

When looking at the behavior of 563 participants, the researchers found that 30% stayed sober for the entire 12 month follow-up period. This leaves a whopping 70% who had at least a drink in the year following treatment. However, the vast majority of those who drank in the first year after treatment (82%) developed moderate, infrequent, drinking habits. In fact, only about 6% started drinking heavily and frequently after their relapse. Even of those who drank, as many as 25% were completely dry for at least an entire month after their relapse.

The bottom line on relapse?

These findings suggest that at least for a year after becoming sober, a relapse is not necessarily the detrimental, destructive, event it has always been feared to be. It is surely possible that these drinking habits change, but according to these findings, if drinking frequency goes anywhere after the initial relapse, it’s down, not up.

I’m not trying to make light of relapse here, and I’m certainly not saying that relapsing is a positive thing. Nevertheless, given the fact that relapse is almost always a part of the recovery process, I’m suggesting that having a relapse shouldn’t scare everyone involved. It doesn’t seem to in any way suggest a necessary demise.

Citation:

Witkiewitz, K. & Masyn, K. E. (2008). Drinking trajectories following an initial lapse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22, 157-167.

Addiction causes – Drug addiction as a chronic disease makes sense

The stigma of addiction is alive and well. Whether you believe in the disease model or not, it seems that people’s judgments regarding what it means to be an addict are well entrenched.

I’d like to work on that a bit.

Why is addiction a disease?

In numerous posts on this site I’ve addressed issues like genetic predisposition and the effects of drugs on the brain that impair addicts’ ability to control their choices. A disease is commonly defined as “A pathological condition of a part, organ, or system of an organism resulting from various causes, such as infection, genetic defect, or environmental stress, and characterized by an identifiable group of signs or symptoms.” (See Answers.com) I don’t think there’s a question regarding whether or not addiction involves a pathology of a body part, namely the brain.

It would definitely be easier if we could all just say that addiction is the product of bad choices. Nevertheless, all the science I’ve seen points to the fact that addicts have impaired decision making to begin with that is only made worse by the drugs they take in.

A comparison with Diabetes

diabetesFor some reason, this still leaves a lot of people seeing addicts as the only ones to blame. I’d like to try a different approach:

We’ve all heard of type 2 diabetes. It’s the kind people aren’t born with, but rather are develop later in life. Most cases are the result of an over exposure of the body to sugars that breaks down its ability to produce insulin, leading to the disease. There are an estimated 15 million people in the U.S. who have type 2 diabetes. They make up 90% of diagnosed diabetes cases.

I think that type 2 diabetes is a disease that can help many reformulate the way they think about addiction.

Patients with adult onset diabetes likely have genetically reduced insulin receptor functionality and possibly other factors that increase their likelihood of developing the condition. They also likely consume more sugars than people who don’t develop type 2 diabetes, though the exact causes are still uncertain. Nevertheless, with early detection, the disease progress can certainly be slowed and perhaps even halted. As the disease progresses, the body’s response to sugar is altered, eventually resulting in what looks like a severe alergy to sugars. However, once developed, type 2 diabetes patients often require similar treatment courses, including medication, exercise, and dietary changes that patients with type 1 diabetes (the type present early on in life). At this point, simply cutting back will no longer do.

This is not all that different from addiction.

Addicts are often born with a set of genetic and environmental factors that predispose them to impulsively engaging in and seeking out, risky, exciting activities. Moreover, the addict’s reaction to drugs is often different than that of non-addiction-prone individuals. For example, many stimulant abusers report a calming, rather than excitatory, effect of drugs like methamphetamine, cocaine, and the likes. That was certainly my experience back in my crystal meth days.

It is true that here the predisposition is more abstract, since it resides in brain activity patterns, but as I’ve said many times before, the brain is certainly a physical part of the body and should be treated as such. Like diabetic patients, once addicts begin using the drugs in large quantities and for extended periods, the drugs cause alterations in physical systems. Like diabetics, once these changes occur, they are certainly long lasting, if not permanent. Dopamine function in the brain of crystal meth abusers has been shown to take as many as 2 years to return to anything resembling non-user levels and we have no way of telling if the newly formed dopamine activity is at all related to what was previsouly there. Once the disease we know as addiction (or dependence) takes hold, there are specific recommended treatments that need to be followed. Simply cutting back will no longer do.

The bottom line?

Addiction fits the model of a disease as well as many other conditions. I have no doubt that people’s moral judgments get in the way sometimes and make it hard for them not to fully blame an addict for their trouble. I don’t doubt that addiction can only develop with the use of drugs, but if there are pre-existing conditions that make that use more likely, I think it need to be taken into consideration as well.

Drug use and abuse following terrrorism: Lessons from addiction research

A recent addiction research article combined findings from 31 different studies to assess the impact of large terrorism events on rates of alcohol, cigarettes, and drug use. The researchers noted that most of the studies occurred after the World Trade bombing of September 11th, 2001.

  • After controlling for the level of exposure, type of event, and length since exposure, the evidence suggests that somewhere between 7%-14% of the population affected by the terrorism will show an increase in their rates of alcohol use.
  • For cigarettes smoking, the average is somewhere between 7%-10%.
  • Drug use, including narcotics and prescription medication, increased an average of 16% to as high as 50% or more. There’s no doubt that a large portion of that increase is due to increased prescription drug use, most likely anti-anxiety medication, antidepressants, etc.

Overall, the findings certainly show that a large-scale terrorism event affects the daily life of citizens, especially in terms of their coping using drugs and alcohol. Hindsight is 20/20, but hopefully next time, we’ll be ready to help people deal with such catastrophes while helping them steer away from possible dependence on drugs down the line.

Citation:

DiMaggio, Charles; Galea, Sandro; Li, Guohua (2009) Substance use and misuse in the aftermath of terrorism. A Bayesian meta-analysis. Addiction, Volume 104, 894-904.

Substance use and misuse in the aftermath of terrorism. A Bayesian meta-analysis

About addiction: Cancer, religion, inhalants, and opiates.

Here is this week’s crop.

Once again, I tried to find posts about addiction from all different angles, check out the post by clicking the title and you’ll get some extra related posts from our site!

PhysOrgAcetaldehyde in alcohol – Cancer in a bottle

GentlePath Recovery for atheists

From the White HouseNational Survey on Drug use and Health – Inhalant use

Science Blog Select (TerraSig)Poppy seed tea can kill

Here’s a sad video about huffing:

About addiction: Genetics, sugar, drinking, and more.

These are some useful articles about addiction I’ve found online. While they cover some topics we’ve discussed on here, I think it’s always better to be more educated!

From Addiction Recovery Basics – Personality Vs. Genetics

From Beating Addictions – A little Q & A about sugar addiction

From Breaking the Cycles – A new online tool to assess drinking problems

From Addiction Inbox – A nice review of 2008 research findings having to do with addiction.

More links to come next week!!!