Clubs, drugs, and dancing – Crystal meth, and club drug use

Anyone involved with the dance/rave/club culture knows that drugs often go hand in hand with music and dancing. Club drugs, as well as alcohol and drug abuse, are often rampant in the social groups full of excited club goers. Previous academic studies supported this notion but could not distinguish if the drug use took place inside the clubs/venues or whether people consumed before going out.

A recent study seems to support the latter explanation (drugs consumed before the club); at least for all drugs aside from crystal meth.

Club Dancing

In this study experimenters tested patrons as they entered and exited the club. Approximately ¼ of the attendees tested positive for some sort of drug when they entered as well as when they exited the club. There was not a significant difference in percentage of those that entered with drugs already in their system than those who exited with drug use. This supports the conclusion that no significant amount of drug use took place inside the club (excluding alcohol).

But this wasn’t true for all drugs. Cocaine and marijuana usage was the same at entrance and exit but positive crystal meth tests nearly doubled from entrance to exit.

Frighteningly enough 16% of the patrons exited the club with a BAC greater than .08%. Many of the people who were taking drugs also consumed alcohol which poses an even greater threat since the interactions between drugs and alcohol can cause severe reactions as well as a more severely impaired judgment.

Since most patrons entered with drugs already in their system, it seems reasonable to suggest that these clubs do attract drug users. Most people who entered without drug use did not take drugs during the course of their stay at the club. However the usage of methamphetamines while in the club definitely needs to be looked into further, as the effects of taking that inside the club in addition to drinking can cause many problems (legal and health wise) for both the patron and the owners.

Co-authored by: Jamie Felzer

Citation:

Miller, Holden, Johnson, Holder, Voas, Keagy (2009) Biological Markers of Drug Use in the Club Setting. Journal of Studies on Drugs and Alcohol. Vol 70 (9)

More CPDD Addiction research: Addiction, exercise, recovery!

Okay, this is probably the last addiction research update I will give focusing on the Reno conference. The rest of the stuff I learned will be incorporated into future posts.

I’ve written before about the relationship between exercise and recovery (see here) and I will surely write more since for me, it was a big part of the equation.

two separate studies at CPDD reaffirmed my belief that exercise can be a very useful tool in addiction recovery.

The first study, conducted in humans, examined the effect of incorporating an extensive exercise routine into a residential, as well as intensive outpatient, addiction treatment program. Their findings showed improved outcomes for participants in the short, as well as long run. These included length of sobriety, subjective assessment of well being, and more. In talking to the researcher, she seemed to believe that at least part of the effect was due to the relief of cravings achieved by allowing patients to focus on something that took effort, rather than simply sitting around.

The second, and to my mind even more interesting, study examined the effect of exercise on cocaine self-administration in rats. Researchers assigned half of their rats to a cage that had a running wheel while the others were assigned to a regular cage. the rats with the running wheel used the device to run an average of 12 kilometers a day! After a week of simply resting in their cages, when transferred to another cage for 2 hours a day, the rats who had the wheel in their cage took less than half as much cocaine as the rats who didn’t have a wheel. the “wheel-rats” were also found to run less after they began the cocaine portion of the experiment, but their cocaine-taking never got near that of the non-exercising rats. It seems that having the exercise did something to reduce the reinforcing power of cocaine.

I have a feeling that future research will show that these finding hold true for other drugs (like crystal meth, heroin, marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol) and possibly even for behavioral addictions like food addiction, gambling, and sex addiction.

All in all, research seems to be supporting the notion that exercise can play a significant role in recovery from addiction. Whether it be for boredom relief or an actual internal change in the motivating power of drugs, it looks to me as if Addiction + Exercise = Recovery !

The brain addiction connection : Crystal meth, and our friend dopamine

We’ve talked about the general way in which neurons in the brain communicate with one another and then reviewed the ways in which cocaine messes some of the basic processes that the brain depends on.

It’s time to move on to another drug, and since the brain-addiction connection is similar for meth and cocaine, it seems the natural next step…

Methamphetamine (speed, ice, glass, crystal, meth)

Remember how we said that cocaine affects the way that dopamine is cleaned up after being released? Well, crystal meth also affects dopamine, but in a different way:

Instead of not allowing a molecule (DAT) to pull released dopamine back into the cell that released it, methamphetamine doesn’t allow the dopamine in a cell to be stored in the little packets that it’s supposed to be put away in. Like the DAT molecule, there’s another molecule that packages dopamine (and other neurotransmitters actually).

This molecule is called vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) because it puts a specific kind of neurotransmitter (called monoamines) into packets called vesicles.

You may be asking this right about now:

“If cocaine and crystal meth act in such similar way, why are their effects so different?”

That’s a very good question.

Even though these two ways of affecting dopamine seem very similar, they cause different changes in the levels of dopamine in the brain:

This flood is similar to the effect of crystal meth on the brain. By interrupting the way the brain packages dopamine, speed causes an unstoppable flood of this neurotransmitter.While cocaine doesn’t allow the neurons to take dopamine back up (reuptake), the brain has these small monitoring devices called autoreceptors. These receptors detect the levels of dopamine in the brain and adjust the output. When cocaine increases dopamine levels, these autoreceptors decrease the amount of dopamine being released.

The problem with crystal meth is that the dopamine can’t be packaged at all, which means that whether the autoreceptors tell the brain to turn down dopamine output, the fact that the dopamine won’t go into it’s packages means it just keep leaking out.

Imagine having a burst pipe and trying to stop the flood by turning down the faucet… not too helpful, right?!

So what you end up with is a long lasting flood of dopamine that the brain can’t do much about… You may have already figured it out, but this is one of the many reasons why crysal meth has become the new drug epidemic; it just does its job really really well!

Dopamine function in a non-drug-using, meth addict after quitting, and a meth addict after 1 year of staying cleanThe long lasting effects on the brain are similar to those of cocaine, but can be even more devestating. Meth is very neurotoxic meaning that at high levels, it can actually kill neurons by over exciting them. In fact, for both cocaine and methamphetamine, but especially for meth, it can take a very long time (a year or more) for dopamine function to look like anything close to a non-user’s brain (look for the decrease in red in the middle figure showing less overall activity in this area).

Check out this video about meth’s effects:

About addiction: Meth, pregnancy, codependency, and ADD

Here’s a new set of articles about addiction that are worth taking the time to read. As usual, don’t forget that if you click the title of this post, you’ll get a list of posts on our site that are related to this week’s links (below the post).

Breaking The Cycles: To Talk or Not To talk – A great post about a topic we’ve already mentioned on here

PhysOrg: Crystal Meth during pregnancy

Addiction Today: Families and marijuana use

Science Blogs Select: Poppy tea can kill you

ADD ADHD Blog – Nascar and ADD – I’ve long thought that there was a relationship between impulse control problems and other conditions that are more acceptable than drug addiction…

That’s it for now, enjoy!

About addiction: Prescription overdose, legalization, methadone, and the brain.

Here are this week’s must reads posts about addiction. Don’t forget to click the title for our related posts!

From the other allaboutaddiction (.net) Overdose deaths due to prescription medication

From Addiction InboxThe economics of drug legalization

From Addiction TomorrowA great balanced post about methadone

From PhysorgThe neurological consequences of early meth exposure

That’s it for this week. Enjoy!