Clubs, drugs, and dancing – Crystal meth, and club drug use

Anyone involved with the dance/rave/club culture knows that drugs often go hand in hand with music and dancing. Club drugs, as well as alcohol and drug abuse, are often rampant in the social groups full of excited club goers. Previous academic studies supported this notion but could not distinguish if the drug use took place inside the clubs/venues or whether people consumed before going out.

A recent study seems to support the latter explanation (drugs consumed before the club); at least for all drugs aside from crystal meth.

Club Dancing

In this study experimenters tested patrons as they entered and exited the club. Approximately ┬╝ of the attendees tested positive for some sort of drug when they entered as well as when they exited the club. There was not a significant difference in percentage of those that entered with drugs already in their system than those who exited with drug use. This supports the conclusion that no significant amount of drug use took place inside the club (excluding alcohol).

But this wasn’t true for all drugs. Cocaine and marijuana usage was the same at entrance and exit but positive crystal meth tests nearly doubled from entrance to exit.

Frighteningly enough 16% of the patrons exited the club with a BAC greater than .08%. Many of the people who were taking drugs also consumed alcohol which poses an even greater threat since the interactions between drugs and alcohol can cause severe reactions as well as a more severely impaired judgment.

Since most patrons entered with drugs already in their system, it seems reasonable to suggest that these clubs do attract drug users. Most people who entered without drug use did not take drugs during the course of their stay at the club. However the usage of methamphetamines while in the club definitely needs to be looked into further, as the effects of taking that inside the club in addition to drinking can cause many problems (legal and health wise) for both the patron and the owners.

Co-authored by: Jamie Felzer

Citation:

Miller, Holden, Johnson, Holder, Voas, Keagy (2009) Biological Markers of Drug Use in the Club Setting. Journal of Studies on Drugs and Alcohol. Vol 70 (9)

The brain-addiction connection: Cocaine, dopamine, and more

Okay, so we’ve covered how the brain’s neurons communicate with one another normally; now let’s learn about how drugs mess things up to produce their specific effects. Since the brain-addiction relationship is different for different drugs, we’ll do this one by one, starting with cocaine:

Cocaine

One of the most commonly abused drugs, cocaine interrupts a molecule in the brain that’s responsible for clearing away the dopamine that is released during normal functioning (it’s called DAT). Like I’d said before, neurons talk to each other by releasing these neurotransmitter molecules to transmit impulses from one to another.

Imagine for a second that every time you spoke, the sound of your voice would continue on, reverberating endlessly. By the time each of us would be done uttering our first sentence, the world would be a mess of unintelligible sounds, echoing forever. This wouldn’t make for a very effective way of communicating.

Sound loses energy as it travels through air, eventually having so little energy that it no longer moves enough air to be audible. This keeps each word distinct and meaningful. In the brain, the individual messages between neurons are similarly kept distinct up by a number of processes.

These include dissipation, chemical breakdown, and reuptake.

Let’s learn more about these processes

Dissipation is a process similar to the story with air and sound, as the molecules move around, their concentration gets lower, and they become less likely to activate anything.

Chemical breakdown does is exactly what it sounds like, chemicals breaking the neurotransmitters down so they can no longer activate anything.

Reuptake is a more complicated process of recycling. Instead of letting all those precious chemicals go to waste, the brain recycles them so they can be used again later. Cocaine blocks the molecule that makes this reuptake process (for dopamine) possible. It’s a small molecule that carries the cocaine back into the cell that released it. Cocaine wedges itself in place of the dopamine (see picture below) and therefore deactivates it.

Dopamine Transport Molecule

What does cocaine’s action result in?

The result is that since it can’t be as efficiently cleaned up, dopamine ends up hanging around the brain for longer than it’s supposed to. Because dopamine is one of the brain’s main “pleasure”, or “positive” signaling molecules, users of cocaine feel better than they would otherwise as a result of this extra dopamine.

This doesn’t sound like such a bad thing, does it? Reuptake is a small price to pay for feeling a high that is almost “naturally produced” (some of the brain’s own dopamine hanging around for longer than it should). The problem is, that like in anything else, for every action, there’s a reaction…

What happens when cocaine in taken for a long time?

Faced with increasing amounts of dopamine, the brain starts adjusting in these ways:

  • It starts out by producing and releasing less dopamine, because as far as it’s concerned, the balance has been interrupted.
  • The number of receptors available to bind with dopamine is also reduced.
  • Next, it starts turning up brain systems that are supposed to counteract the actions of dopamine in order to once again, adjust for the increased levels.

Overall, these are some of the reasons for the “come down” or, after effects of a heavy night of cocaine use.

Over time, many of these changes become long lasting, resulting in a whole set of undesirable effects for the user, including withdrawal, mood problems, as well as some serious problems with thinking and control over behavior.

Not to be ignored are the effects that cocaine use, and the good feelings it initially brings along, have on motivation and normal reward functioning and learning in the brain; but we’ll get to that in another lesson…

Question of the day:
Does the above explanation of how cocaine works help you make sense of the effects it has? Could you see how these effects would possibly bring about addictive, rather than recreational, use?

The brain-addiction connection : Neurons and neurotransmitters

As I’d mentioned in an earlier post, while many people experiment with, or use, drugs at some point in their lives, only a small percentage (between 10%-15%) develop chronic drug abuse and dependence┬áproblems. While some of the specifics of what makes one person more likely to move from recreational use to addiction are still being investigated and hotly debated, we do know quite a lot about what happens in the brain when drug are used.

Before I can go into the specifics of the brain-addiction connection…

We need a little background on the way the brain works:

The neuron

The brain is in essence a very complex network of interconnected fibers (neurons) and their maintenance and support structures. The brain contains about 10,000,000,000,000 (10 trillion) of these cells, and they each make many connections.

The left end of the neuron in the picture on the right is called the dendrite; this is the neuron’s main information receiving hub. The long part extending to the right is called an axon, and it ends in axon terminals that eventually connect to other neurons’ dendrites.

This is the basic way in which everything that happens in the brain is communicated, including our thoughts, feelings, movements, and memories!!! Dendrite to axon, to axon terminals, to dendrites, and back to step 1. How this transmission is achieved within the neuron is not necessary for this discussion; let’s just say that you should eat your bananas and make sure you always have some potassium, sodium, and calcium in your body…

How do the neurons talk to one another?

Neurotransmitters

What is important for us is the way these neurons transfer information across the gap between the axon terminals and their connecting dendrites. This is achieved by chemicals called neurotransmitters. There are quite a few of these, but the main ones we’re going to be concerned with are serotonin, adrenaline, GABA, and dopamine as these are some of the major players in drug addiction (especially dopamine).

When a neuron wants to send a signal to its neighbor, it releases packets of a neurotransmitter (most axon terminals release only one specific neurotransmitter), and these are received by specialized receptors at the dendrites of the receiving neuron. If enough neurotransmitter is released and enough receptors are activated, the signal starts again and the cycle continues…

Neurotrasnmitters and drug use

Most abused drugs disrupt some combination of factors within this mechanism to produce both the intended, and unintended, effects they are known for.

Alright, that’s probably enough to absorb for now, more on what specific drugs do to interrupt this process soon!

Question:
How many of you knew about the ways in which drugs affect the brain? Would you mind sharing the things you’ve learned and where you’d learned them?