Time to get high- Circadian rhythms and drug use

Contributing Co-Author: Andrew Chen

Like most living creatures, humans have internal biological clocks known as circadian rhythms. These internal cycles synchronize our bodies with the Earth’s 24-hour day/night cycle and prepare us for predictable daily events (1). Circadian rhythms regulate a number of bodily functions including temperature, hormone secretion, bowel movements, and sleep (2). Recent research suggests that drug use may disturb our circadian rhythms, possibly influencing our decisions to take drugs.

Moon

Environmental drivers of drug use

Our biological clocks are set by external cues from the environment, called zeitgebers (3). The most familiar to us are light and food. However, research on rats has shown that opiates, nicotine, stimulants, and alcohol also have the ability to alter the phase of circadian rhythms independent of light or food (1). Drug use has long been associated with major disruptions in the human sleep cycle. Cocaine, crystal meth, and MDMA users often go without sleep for days, and these sleep disruptions can continue long after people stop using drugs. In fact, sleep disturbance outlasts most withdrawal symptoms and places recovering addicts at greater risk for relapse (3).

The rhythm of drug use

Circadian rhythms could also be the reason why people show 24-hour patterns of drug use. A study of urban hospitals found that overdose victims are admitted to hospitals more around 6:30PM than any other time of the day (2). Fluctuations in drug sensitivity, effect, and reward value are believed to be regulated by genes that control circadian rhythms. In other words, our biological clocks are telling us when to get high.

Researchers are just beginning to explore the relationship between circadian rhythms and drug use. Future understanding of this relationship will help us explain how drug addiction develops and develop better ways to treat it. It’s possible that offering specific aspects of treatment as certain point in the circadian rhythm can improve the probability of success.

Citations:

1. Kosobud, A. E. K., Gillman, A. G., Leffel, J. K., Pecoraro, N.C., Rebec, G.V., Timberlake, W. (2007) Drugs of abuse can entrain circadian rhythms, The Scientific World Journal, 7(S2), 203-212

2. McClung, C.A. (2007) Circadian rhythms, the mesolimbic dopaminergic circuit, and drug addiction, The Scientific World Journal, 7(S2), 194-202

3. Gordon, H.W. (2007) Sleep, circadian rhythm, and drug abuse, The Scientific World Journal, 7(S2), 191-193

Always stay mindful – My different experience with recovery, addiction, and crystal meth

One of the main features of addiction is, unfortunately, how insidious it is.
Given everything I’ve been learning in the past 12 years about drugs, their abuse, and the people involved, I feel right in saying that most people don’t realize how far gone they are until it’s too late.

I consider myself fortunate in finding my way out of my crystal meth addiction, and I’ve met many others who’ve found their way as well. Still, I realize constantly that you can’t be too vigilant or too aware in watching out for inroads back to disaster.

My Experiment

methAs I’d said before, I began drinking again after 3 years of staying completely sober. My decision to leave typical recovery was made after talking with my parents and loved ones and making sure that they understood what this meant. I made sure that if I began reverting back to my old way of being lazy, aloof, and disrespectful, they would step in and send me right back to rehab.

This was my way of running the famous AA experiment and for me, it’s been working for the past 5 years or so.

But, I am always aware of how intoxicated I am and it is rare nowadays that I let myself get to the point of the loss of control. I have this constant voice in my head now that monitors how drunk I feel. I DO leave unfinished glasses of wine at dinners at times, and I do my best to make wise choices before going out so that I don’t make dumb ones later (like driving under the influence).

How I stay grounded

Still, most of my awareness about my addiction and what it means comes from my constant work in the area. Working with people who are in the throws of their disease keeps me in touch with how far I’ve gone and how much I don’t want to go back. I now know much more about the risks and about what I’d be doing to myself were I to take them. I don’t want to kill additional neurons, and I sure as hell don’t want to go through 2 more years of hell trying to put my life in order. I’ve never tried speed again since the day I quit in 2002 because I can’t say that I’m sure of what would happen next, and I don’t want to find out in case it’s bad…

This is why I believe that education is one of our best weapons in the battle against addiction.

My most valuable help

Lastly, I feel like one of the most important ingredients in all of this is having people you can trust and confide in. I don’t have many of those, but there are a few, and my family is always there, and I share everything with them.

For me, it was the moment I chose to be forthcoming with my family and hide nothing from them that has healed years of tension, mistrust and fighting, and I never want to go back .

This however means that they too have to be open. We now laugh when I say things like “I wish I could do some speed now to get me through all this work I have,” but I assure you, no one was laughing 5 years ago…

A word of caution

DefeatedMy sponsor in AA “went out” (meaning he started using again) a few months ago after being prescribed pain medication for surgery. Many in AA would point to the fact that he should have never been prescribed those pills in the first place. Everything I’ve learned about the brain indicates that automatic relapse is only likely when using one’s “drug of choice“. I say it was the dissolution of his marriage and his trust that having been sober for 12 years he could do no wrong that got him in trouble.

The moral:

Be open, accepting, and loving. Let those around you say things that make you uncomfortable without too much judgment so that they feel safe in coming back to you, and if they ask for help, know how to give it to them. No matter how happy people are to finally quit drugs (or another addiction), the feeling of defeat when they realize they now have to learn to live without their crutch can be enormous. This is where the help is most important.

Question of the day:
Do you have a story about the support you found necessary for your own recovery or the recovery of someone close to you?

Give me SUGAR!!!! And a little food addiction on the side…

sugarSo while we’re sitting here talking about drug addiction, quite a bit of research in the last few years has looked into food, and specifically high-sugar-content foods, as a possibly addictive substance (food addiction).

The focus started when the new head of NIDA (The National Institute on Drug Abuse), Dr. Nora Volkow, who’s been doing research on obesity, took her seat a few years back. Since then, there have been quite a few papers showing that when given foods (or water) high in sugar content, animals develop behavioral patterns that are very similar to drug addiction.

This makes sense from an evolutionary stand point, since sugar gives our bodies carbs, which supply energy for our daily activities. However, it’s probably no secret that 50,000 (or even 1000) years ago, people weren’t consuming foods with refined sugars crammed into them (refined sugars have only been around for about 250 years). Back then, people needed all the energy they could get their hands on.

Unfortunately for us, evolution doesn’t move as quickly as our industrial and technological advances, which means we now get more of the high energy foods more easily, all while moving less and therefore putting out less energy.

The result? Atkins diets and the likes recommending low carb intake, which in actuality, should probably read “sufficient carb intake.”

A very recent paper has shown that even artificial sweeteners (specifically saccharin, see citation), may be able to induce these types of behaviors. In fact, saccharin sweetened water (and also sugar sweetened water) was chosen over cocaine, even for animals that already liked cocaine, and even when they were offered more and more cocaine!!! How’s that for amazing?!

What does this mean for food addiction?

Well for one thing, it means that if we want to battle the obesity problem in this country, we need to re-examine the availability of these high-sugar, high-calorie foods. But, it may also mean that low calorie foods that are artificially sweetened may soon be shown to be as bad for us…

I’m telling you, by the end of all of this, we’ll learn that growing your own vegetables and fruits is the only way to stay healthy. Come to think of it, even then, I know at least one person who may be addicted to fruits…

Question of the day:
Does your experience with high-sugar foods lead you to agree or disagree with these research findings???

Citation:
Magalie Lenoir., Fuschia Serre., Lauriane Cantin, Serge H. Ahmed (2007). Intense Sweetness Surpasses Cocaine Reward. PLoS ONE 2(8): e698.

About addiction: Animal research, food addiction, policy, and cocaine addiction

Here are this weeks gems when it comes to learning about addiction. As usual, if you click this title’s post, you’ll get a list of our related post as a bonus!

Adventures in Ethics and Science A nice post about the current state of the animal-rights dialog

Addiction InboxMood Foods (and their possible role in food addiction)

Addiction TomorrowAdvocacy and Treatment

PhysOrgAltered reward-based brain-activation in cocaine addiction

About addiction: Genetics, sugar, drinking, and more.

These are some useful articles about addiction I’ve found online. While they cover some topics we’ve discussed on here, I think it’s always better to be more educated!

From Addiction Recovery Basics – Personality Vs. Genetics

From Beating Addictions – A little Q & A about sugar addiction

From Breaking the Cycles – A new online tool to assess drinking problems

From Addiction Inbox – A nice review of 2008 research findings having to do with addiction.

More links to come next week!!!

Making a difference one post at a time… Helping drug users

Hi everyone,

I’ve been wanting to do something to help drug users for a long time now, so instead of just thinking about it, I’ve decided to go ahead and give this a try.

I’m a doctoral student at UCLA working on my PhD in psychology. I’ve been studying issues related to drug-addiction, sex-addiction, and gambling-addiction for the past 6 years and am continuing on my quest to discover what I call “The pathway to addiction.”

The thing is that on the way I have been, and still am, gaining an amazing amount of knowledge that I think can benefit not only those struggling with drug use and addiction themselves, but also the family members, friends, and loved ones of those being affected by this disease, condition, or whatever each of you feels comfortable calling addiction. As far as I’m concerned, this should all be about somehow actually helping drug users.

I’ve had my own experiences with drug use and addiction, and so I don’t expect my writings to be devoid of subjective input that I feel I can contribute given my experience.

My goal here is to get what we, as scientists, know about addiction to the general public.

I want to do this because I feel that knowledge is a key ingredient not only in curing and fighting conditions (be they medical, academic, psychological, or otherwise), but also in simply being able to handle and accept things as they are more completely.

We tend to be more scared of things when we feel like we don’t understand them.
I’m not going to lie to you on here and I’ll have no problem revealing personal history and experience by they related to my drug use or other aspects of my life.

I want this to be a forum for people to ask honest questions, get honest answers, and be able to look to when they feel like they’re at a loss and need someone who understands. Making a difference takes work. I hope it works…