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Posts Tagged ‘heroin’

About Addiction: Drug Withdrawal in Newborns, Heroin, and Harm Reduction

February 28th, 2011

There’s so much to learn about addiction nowadays – Psychological theories, new stories, neuroscience research, and more. At All About Addiction we try to make the information easy to digest, so when you need to sort of the latest information about addiction, come see us, we’ll help.

Harm reduction – Heroin and Injecting Drugs

Irish Examiner-After four individuals died from heroin overdoses in Ireland drug workers are issuing warnings to heroin users. The heroin that is being used is of better quality so it elevates the risk for overdose. Heroin has been off of the streets of Ireland for the past couple of months due to supplying issues but now heroin is back, and it is so pure that it is killing people. Another issue could be that the short absence of the drug has left people with less tolerance then before.

The Body– The International Harm Reduction Association (IHRA) and HIV rights groups are urging the UN’s to legalize methadone in order to fight HIV/AIDS and heroin addiction In Russia. Russia is home to 1 million HIV-positive people (for comparison, the U.S> has about 500,000) and has one of the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics in the world. In addition to this Russia has 3 million heroin addicts.  Russia is refusing to employ harm reduction programs such as needle exchanges, or to legalize methadone to treat heroin addicts.  Many Russian officials such as Gennady Onishchenko feel that legalizing methadone will not help as it is “just another narcotic.” We’ve hear the same argument here, but perhaps the IHRA can convince Russia to use harm reduction problems in order to help individuals.

Harm Reduction Coalition– This “webinar” allow its viewers to gain cultural competency when it comes to learning about the injecting drug user. It asks questions like:  “Why is there a need for IDU cultural competency?” and “What is IDU Cultural Competency?”. Check out the webinar and see what it has to offer!

Mental Health and Prescription Drug Withdrawal in Newborns

Orlando SentinelPrescription drug abuse is already a problem in our society; in Florida alone prescription abuse is responsible for at least seven deaths a day. Prescription drug abuse is becoming even more problematic as it is now affecting newborns. In 2009 alone 1,000 babies were born and treated for drug-withdrawal syndrome.  In the past babies that were going through drug-withdrawal symptoms were most likely to suffer from crack cocaine addiction but now the babies are more likely to be addicted to prescription drugs.

Science Daily– A study was conducted and found that children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two to three times more likely than children without the disorder to develop serious substance abuse problems in adolescence and adulthood. Kate Humphreys, a colleague of Dr. Jaffe’s and a graduate student at UCLA was a coauthor of the research.

Addiction Recovery- Peer support

Stop Medicine Abuse-Often times it is best for teens to get information from their peers in order for something to have an effect in their lives. This website approaches substance abuse prevention with that specific mentality. Check out the testimony on this website as well as other resources that can be used by teens to learn about drug abuse.


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Alcoholism , Sniffing Bath Salts, and Prescription Medication Abuse

January 17th, 2011

If you care about addiction you’re going to want to read our weekly update from across the globe. It’ll make you smarter – promise (at least when it comes to alcohol and drug abuse issues)!

Drug Abuse – Vaccines to treat addictions, and Sniffing Bath Salts

Medical News Today-A biochemical breakthrough by researchers at Cornell  produces a unique vaccine that combines bits of the common cold virus with a particle that mimics cocaine. Researchers believe the vaccine could be tailored to treat other addictions, such as to nicotine, heroin, and methamphetamine. While similar to other vaccine discussions we’ve had here, the method and generalizability here are of specific interest.

BBC News-Publicity of scholastic journals back fired on Dr. David E. Nichols as drug makers profit off his research findings. Dr. Nichols says while some drugs can be manufactured in the kitchen the scale to which these “legal high” drugs are produced indicates some small companies are involved.

Fox News.com– A new “drug abuse” trend of sniffing bath salts to try to get high is emerging in Louisiana and is creating a issue for the Louisiana Poison Center. It appears that more kids are attempting this “trend” resulting in of paranoia, hallucinations, delusions, as well as hypertension and chest pain. The problem’s gotten so bad in the state that the Governor had to make the active ingredient in the bath salts illegal. The bath salts contain a chemical called “Mephadrone and Methylenedioxypyrovalerone or MDPV, which is known to be a stimulant that may also cause paranoia and hostility.

Alcoholism – Studies and Personal Stories about alcohol

Science Daily- A new study has been conducted which shows that midlife alcohol consumption may be related to dementia which is often assessed about 20 years later. The study found that both abstainers and heavy drinkers had a greater risk for dementia and cognitive impairment than light drinkers. Again, it seems that drinking no-alcohol is associated with risk factors and outcomes that are not as ideal as moderate consumption and somewhat similar to heavy drinking.

Counselor Magazine Blog- Everyone loves watching a good and inspirational movie from time to time. The new movie “Country Strong” deals with many issues that everyday individuals face such as alcoholism, mental illness, co-dependency, ageism, and grief. These are elements that a person goes through when they are dealing with alcoholism. The movie depicts that alcoholism is a family disease and does not affect just the alcoholic. Another great point that the movie shows is that if there are underlying issues that are often not resolved that relapse is very common.

Prescription Drug abuse and death

Reuters- A new study has found that an increasing amount of individuals are dying from abusing and misusing prescription drugs as well as illegal drugs. In recent times deaths from “accidental poisonings” or overdose are more than ten times higher than they were in the late 1960s. This increase in drug deaths is higher across almost all age groups than it was in previous decades, especially amongst white Americans.

Chicago Sun Times- Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in our country, and deaths from unintentional drug overdoses in the US have increased five-fold over the last two decades. The drugs that are commonly causing these deaths are particularly painkillers such as OxyContin (oxycodone), Vicodin (hydrocodone) and fentanyl. What many individuals do not realize is prescription drugs can be much more deadly than illegal drugs. In 2007 alone, abuse of prescription painkillers was responsible for more overdose deaths than heroin and cocaine combined. Prescription painkillers, most of which are opioids, are synthetic versions of opium used to relieve moderate to severe chronic pain, however in large and excessive quantities, they can suppress a person’s ability to breathe and are very dangerous when they are mixed with alcohol or other drugs.


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Addiction Treatment Admissions in the United States: Everyone, meet TEDS

January 14th, 2011

Dirk Hanson

What a difference a decade makes.

Do you know what drug use trends are ongoing?Between 1998 and 2008, addiction treatment admissions in the U.S. increased markedly for methamphetamine (crystal meth), prescription opiates, and marijuana. Treatment admissions for alcohol and cocaine declined over the same period, while heroin admissions remained roughly the same.

The Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), which the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) uses to compile its report, includes only those addiction treatment facilities that receive state alcohol or drug agency funds, and which are represented in state administrative data systems. Despite this caveat, the TEDS study matters, because states use reports of this kind to shift limited resources from one treatment focus to another, based on demand. Read the rest of this entry »


Posted in:  Drugs, Education, Treatment
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Is marijuana addictive? You can bet your heroin on that!

November 25th, 2010

marijuanaThis is the ultimate question for many people. In fact, when discussing addiction, it is rare that the addiction potential for marijuana doesn’t come up.

Some basic points about marijuana:

The active ingredient in marijuana, THC, binds to cannabinoid receptors in the brain (CB1 and CB2). Since it is a partial agonist, it activates these receptors, though not to their full capacity. The fact that cannabinoid receptors modulate mood, sleep, and appetite to some extent is the reason behind many of marijuana’s effects.

But how is marijuana addictive? What’s the link to heroin?

What most people don’t know is that there is quite a bit of interaction between the cannabinoid receptor system (especially CB1 receptors) and the opioid receptor system in the brain. In fact, research has shown that without the activation of the µ opioid receptor, THC is no longer rewarding.

If the fact that marijuana activates the same receptor system as opiates (like heroin, morphine, oxycontin, etc.) surprises you, you should read on.

The opioid system in turn activates the dopamine reward pathway I’ve discussed in numerous other posts (look here for a start). This is the mechanisms that is assumed to underlie the rewarding, and many of the addictive, properties of essentially all drugs of abuse.

But we’re not done!

Without the activation of the CB1 receptors, it seems that opiates, alcohol, nicotine, and perhaps stimulants (like methamphetamine) lose their rewarding properties. This would mean that drug reward depends much more heavily on the cannabinoid receptor system than had been previously thought. Since this is the main target for THC, it stands to reason that the same would go for marijuana.

So what?! Why is marijuana addictive?

Since there’s a close connection between the targets of THC and the addictive properties of many other drugs, it seems to me that arguing against an addictive potential for marijuana is silly.

Of course, some will read this as my saying that marijuana is always addictive and very dangerous. They would be wrong. My point is that marijuana can not be considered as having no potential for addiction.

As I’ve pointed out many times before, the proportion of drug users that become addicted, or dependent, on drugs is relatively small (10%-15%). This is true for almost all drugs – What I’m saying is that it is likely also true for marijuana (here is a discussion of physical versus psychological addiction and their bogus distinction).

Citation:

Ghozland, Matthes, Simonin, Filliol, L. Kieffer, and Maldonado (2002). Motivational Effects of Cannabinoids Are Mediated by μ-Opioid and κ-Opioid Receptors. Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 1146-1154.


Posted in:  Drugs, Education, Marijuana, Opiates, Tips
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About Addiction: Alcohol, drugs, and bipolar disorder

November 11th, 2010

Have any questions about different drugs or alcohol? We bet you do and we’re glad to see you back at All About Addiction ! You should browse our content and check out the information on alcohol, heroin, marijuana.  It is a great source for a quick 30 minute information session.

“Traditional” Drugs

BBC– A man in England was killed after consuming heroin that contained anthrax in it. This was the fifth case of a drug user in England who became ill due to anthrax. It appears that drug users are becoming increasingly vulnerable to having their contraband contaminated with anthrax.

Join Together– Do you think Marijuana should be legalized? That was the question on the minds of many individual’s as they went to the polls on Election Day, yet despite the concerted efforts of some people Proposition 19 was defeated. Some of the arguments for supporting the legalization of marijuana was so that it would be treated like alcohol and tobacco and would not be criminalized along with drugs like heroin, meth, and cocaine. Apparently the majority of voters thought those benefits didn’t outweigh the possibility that legalizing marijuana would increase social problems. By the way, this is not the first time Californians have rejected the legalization of marijuana, it also occurred in 1972, which likely means that some of the people who voted against it this time supported it in the past.

Synthetic Drugs and new drug combinations

KTLA-How does a drink of prescription cough syrup, soda and jolly ranchers sound to you?  Although this may be unappealing to some it is actually a drink bar-goers are getting in to. The drink is also known as Sizzurp (I’m pretty sure I’ve heard Snoop Dog say that in song) and can produce quite a high thanks to the codeine that is found in it. Unfortunately, the combination of alcohol and codeine also increases the chance that the drink will be deadly deadly. Apparently this drink is often promoted by individuals in the music industry and the DEA is worried and wants to crack down on it.

Addiction Inbox– If you would like to learn about a new drug called Mephedrone then this article is for you ! Mephedrone is a new synthetic drug found mostly in England. For more on this topic check out Dirk’s article!

Alcohol: Working Mothers and Energy Drinks

Marin Institute- There has been a growing recognition of the risks of alcoholic energy drinks and officials across the country are starting to take action against them (who hasn’t had a RedBull and Vodka?). Often times these energy drinks are marketed to youth but those individuals do not know the stress that high amounts of alcohol and caffeine can have on the body. Since 2008 major companies such as MillerCoors, Anhueser-Busch, and InBev have removed caffeine from their brands, but smaller companies have begun marketing even more dangerous products that come in larger sizes with higher alcohol content. The news media is attempting to educate the public on the dangers of these products and legal action may even be taken. Check out this article for a great read!

CNN– Working mothers have a lot to balance in their daily lives from running kids to school to doing errands and keeping houses and lives in order – it’s a tough job (just ask my wife). The magazine Working Mother found that 40 percent of working mothers turn to alcohol to try to alleviate stress and 57 percent reported misuse of prescription drugs. Check out this article to find out more and to watch a video which discusses this fuller details and don’t forget to look at some of our content on moderate alcohol intake.

Mental Health and Addiction Treatment

Breaking the cycles– It has often been reported that individuals who have certain mental health problems such as bipolar disorder have a greater chance of developing substance abuse problems (to alcohol or drugs). This article is very helpful in providing the families of individuals with bipolar disorder information to understand the disorder better as well as the alcohol and or drug abuse than may come with. With this understanding the families of these individual can help reduce the stigma of both the bipolar disorder and their addiction.

Addiction Information– Do you remember a couple weeks ago when All About Addiction reported that Michael Lohan wanted to open up his own rehab center? Well the apple does not fall to far from the tree because Lindsay Lohan now wants to open up her own rehab center.  Lindsay has been in and out of rehab five times in the past two years – Is this too early for her to open up a rehab center? I think that’s probably true and that she should focus on getting herself healthy first.


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Harm reduction – Why the bad press for addiction treatment that works?!

October 31st, 2010

condoms can help protect again STDs

How many of you think that giving a crystal meth user condoms will increase their drug use? Probably not many. What if instead the question had to do with giving that same user clean needles rather than having them share a dirty one? Or having him reduce his drug use instead of stopping completely? I bet there would be a little more disagreement there.

Some of you may have heard of the harm-reduction approach to drug abuse counseling and treatment, but many of you likely haven’t because the term itself is essentially taboo in the United States. The idea is to approach the patient (or client) without the shaming or expectations of abstinence that normally come with drug treatment. Instead, the counselors hope to reduce as much of the negative things associated with the drug use.

For example, almost all drug injecting users end up with hepatitis C due to dirty-needle sharing. As in the above example, harm reduction practitioners would seek to provide users with clean needles, thereby reducing needle sharing and the transmission of disease. Risky sexual behavior is often associated with methamphetamine, and crack use; instead of targeting the use itself, often, interventions attempt to reduce unprotected sex, reducing HIV transmission in the process.

hypodermic-needleHarm reduction has many supporters, but unfortunately, there are at least as many people who are against it. The claim is that harm reduction doesn’t stop drug use, and that we shouldn’t be in the business of making drug use easier. In fact, though they have no data to support it, some people argue that giving users clean needles is likely to exacerbate their drug use. My argument is that life as a drug user is pretty difficult as is, and if we can provide a way to show drug addicts that people actually care about their well-being, we might help some of them see the light.

Even more to the point, my thinking is that HIV, Hepatitis C, and other conditions often helped by harm-reduction, have to be considered as additional societal costs of drug abuse. If harm reduction helps us tackle those collateral costs, I’m all for it as an additional tool.

The bottom line is this: If we can use multiple tools to solve a problem, why limit ourselves unnecessarily to only one? If harm reduction helps, why not use it in conjunction with abstinence treatment?

As I’ve mentioned in previous posts, it’s time for us to stop resorting to ridiculous moral judgments and start focusing on solving the problem. If we can help an addict use less, use fewer drugs, or use more responsibly, I say we should go for it!!!


Posted in:  Drugs, Education, For others, Opinions, Sex, Tips, Treatment
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About Addiction: Drug use, Addiction Recovery, and smoking

October 11th, 2010

We’re back with our weekly post about addiction news and research. We’ve got harm reduction in Australia, heroin ads that don’t work, the impact of drug abuse on children, and more. Get your 30 seconds of education for the day.

Using Drugs – Heroin, HIV, the law, and recovery

The Australian– There is a state approved heroin injecting room in Australia. The center opened to create a safer place for drug users to shoot heroin. 3500 individuals have overdosed on the premises without a single fatality, making for a very interesting way of combating drug addiction that would definitely fall under that harm-reduction model American hate so much!

Star Advertiser– When it comes to scaring individuals into not using drugs, specifically heroin, fear appeals do not seem to work in preventing future drug users. Fear appeals ads show drug users as violent, and often have missing teeth or skin problems. Apparently, audiences are smart enough to see these as not really representative of heroin users in general and they’re not buying it, making the ads useless in combating drug addiction.

Global Development– Eastern Europe and Central Asia have the fastest growth rate of HIV infection in the world (Russia accounts for between 60% and 70% of the epidemic). This may be due to sharing dirty needles when using drugs and the biggest problem is likely lack of prevention efforts for high risk groups.

Guardian– A senior police officer from Britain thinks that individuals should not be criminally prosecuted for possessing marijuana. By focusing less on drugs found among youth the police can focus on things they see as more important like hard core criminals. I’m sure our legalization friends will love this, although again, this isn’t legalization but decriminalization and parents will hate it.

Addiction Inbox– Meditation and exercise play a role in drug addiction recovery. Both methods apparently help to eliminate the panic and anxiety that plays a role in detoxification. Although it may not be the most popular method of recovery, we at A3 have already written about this and think you should give it a try!

Breaking the cycles–  A program called Partnership for a Drug Free America has five new drug programs in order to eliminate drug use among teens. These programs educate teens as well as their parents with a variety to drug information.

Smoking, pregnancy, and attitude

Science Daily- Women who smoke during pregnancy can hinder their children’s coordination and physical control (likely affecting boys more). Smoking during pregnancy can damage development in the fetal stage, so if you are expecting try not to light up (as our other post on pregnancy and smoking recommends).

Decoder– You are in for a good read on the changing attitudes of smoking. This blog gives an inside perspective on smoking and how it has evolved from the time it was considered “cool”.

Addiction’s impact on others

Philly Daily News- Addiction impacts not only the drug addict but their children as well. 15% of all children live in a household with an alcoholic and one in four children is exposed to a family member’s alcohol abuse or dependence. These children are often neglected when their parents are under the influence and that neglect can lead to some pretty terrible outcomes for the children themselves down the line.

Addiction Recovery– This is an excellent read on the importance of patience when it comes to addiction recovery. Rome wasn’t built in a day and neither will a drug addict’s wonderful new life. Recovery takes time so take a deep  breath and enjoy!


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