About Addiction: Prescription drugs, Alcohol prices, and prevention among teens

You know you care about addiction, and you know you love reading addiction news and research – A3 does it all for you and gathers things up in a nice little package we call our weekly “about addiction” post. It’s the fastest way to get the information you want, even if you didn’t know it was out there!

Prescription Drugs, drug safety, and sales

Reuters– Walgreen’s offers its customers a convenient way of disposing of their prescription drugs. This allows individuals to safely dispose of unwanted or expired drugs. The way that the program works is to place the unwanted prescription drugs in an envelope and send it to a medication incinerator. Controlled substances however are excluded from the program, I guess they’re afraid of bags of heroin and cocaine showing up at Walgreen offices?

Wales online– After being bugged to see if a man was in possession of illegal drugs, a number of men were sentenced to 48 years in jail for selling heroin. This undercover investigation lasted for six months, revealing a magnificent economy of drug use, abuse and profit.

Discovery News– Authorities discovered that eight illicit drugs, including cocaine, ecstasy, and methamphetamines, were detectable in the waterways of a Spanish national park. They’re worried about the threat of the drugs’ side effects to animals, but I have to say it makes me wonder why so many drug addicts are dumping their drugs there…

Alcohol Prices

Telegraph (U.K.)– A “price fixing”  system for alcohol prices has been suggested in the U.K., which is supposed to help reduce binge drinking encouraged by bottom priced alcohol. Economics experts in England suggest that all the policy will likely do will be increase profits for store that sell cheap alcohol. If our work here is any indication though, driving alcohol price up (as much as 100% in some stores) will certainly have an effect on some drinkers.

Health DayTax increases in alcohol prices may aid in alleviating alcohol problems. A study was conducted which showed that increasing the alcohol prices will result in significant reductions in many of the undesirable outcomes associated with drinking. So next time you go to buy alcohol and the price is too high just think of all the help you’re providing the community.

Addiction interventions and addiction treatment of teens

Time to act!- Perhaps one of the most important ways to prevent an addiction from happening is to catch it in its early stages and prevent it from ever developing. This website promotes primary prevention of as a means of addiction intervention and urges parents to act as soon as possible if you think your child is using drugs or alcohol.

DBtechno– Children who have regular meals are less likely to drink (read our coverage of teen drinking). This was attributed to parents having better, more consistent, interactions with their children at the dinner table. Kids who did not eat regular meals were twice as likely to drink and use cigarettes. Talk about a great way at starting on an addiction intervention early on in life – a nice relaxing dinner, and maybe some dessert…

ABC News– This article tells of the ill effects that alcohol can have to a child when alcohol is consumed during pregnancy. It tells the story of one family who could not stand their child’s “out of control behavior” likely brought on by FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome). Read All About Addiction’s coverage of drinking during pregnancy.

Addiction Inbox– A great article using Dock Ellis’ perspective on LSD. Ellis is now speaking to inmates in correctional facilities, telling his story of how he was addicted to drugs and alcohol while playing baseball.

Salvia, a popular hallucinogen that is much shorter-acting than LSD

Co-authored by Jamie Felzer

If I were a betting person (I’m not really), I’d bet that most of you have been to YouTube before. For some of us the video site provides good information and for others it’s an endless source of comedy.  Either way, YouTube has also become a hallmark of the youngest generation of computer users – they love to post funny videos of their friends for the whole world to see. Some of those young YouTube users have been posting videos of themselves using Salvia.

Salvia, Salvinorin A, and YouTube

For those unaware, Salvinorin-A (note Salvanorin by the way) is the active, hallucinogenic drug in Salvia, a plant that is legal for those above 18 in the United States. Salvinorin A is a very potent hallucinogen that unlike LSD and many other hallucinogens, does not act on serotonin circuits, but instead acts on opioid receptors to produce short term effects.  The range of effects include surfacing of past memories, uncontrollable laughter, sensations with various motor properties and becoming one with an inanimate object.

Salvia’s usage has long been documented among South American Shamans for visions and healing purposes. However, shamans use it only through extraction into tea or through chewing and modern methods of use include smoking or ingestion sublingually. Smoking the drug produces a much faster onset. Chewing Salvia leaves results in a much smaller amount of the drug, allowing the shamans to use the plant therapeutically.  Large doses, such as those that are used now aren’t shown to have therapeutic effects.

Interestingly, the opioid receptor Salvia acts on (the Kappa opioid receptor-type) is not the same one that morphine and heroin act on (called the mu opioid receptor). This can leave Salvia users with a dysphoric effect (like depression) that makes for a miserable experience and a desire for the trip to end.  Good thing it is a quick trip!!  However, Salvia is known to produce different effects in different users, so dysphoria is not always present.

Recently, researchers looked into YouTube videos people posted of themselves or their friends using Salvia. Since Salvia is a fairly short-acting drug, lasting an average of 6 minutes, they were able to see many of the full experiences in their natural environment.  Some of the observed effects of salvia included uncontrollable movements, changes in visual perception, laughter and “separateness” of body.

Salvia, addiction, and long term effects

As far as we know right now, Salvia use doesn’t seem to produce many long-term, severe, consequences and it’s addictive properties are not yet known. Still, the experience during use can be quite harsh. The number of hits, as to be expected, closely correlated with the amount of functionality problems exhibiting themselves in diction and fluency of movements.  As noted earlier, although usage in low doses may be used for holistic healing purposes, smoking of Salvia does not seem to have any sort of healing powers.

Like many other legal drugs, Salvia use should be undertaken with caution, understanding the potency of the drug, its effects, and the possible consequences. Just because a drug is legal doesn’t mean it’s completely safe – Make sure you know what you’re doing before trying it out.

Citation:

Lange, Daniel, Homer, Reed, Clapp. Salvia Divonorum: Effects and Use Among YouTube Users. Drug and Alcohol Addiction. May 4 2009

Addiction stories – LSD addiction: AN LSD trip down the wrong path

An LSD trip may be fun for a bit, but LSD addiction doesn't sound like any fun at all.**DISCLAIMER: This post has been changed since its original content. Since I Believe the submitted story was fake, I’ve now made this a post about the possibility of developing LSD dependence**

Many of my readers claim that LSD addiction does not exist. Well, They’re simply wrong. LSD dependence (the clinical term for addiction) is certainly out there, though its no doubt rare. To understand why I can make that claim, let’s cover the specifics of what a psychological assessment of dependence requires:

The official definition of addiction

As far as the DSM-IV (the psychological assessment manual) is concerned, dependence on any drug require at least three of the following to occur within a year:

  1. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
    • a need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or desired effect
    • markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of substance
  2. Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following:
    • the characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the substance
    • the same (or a closely related) substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms
  3. The substance is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended
  4. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control substance use
  5. A great deal of time is spent in activities to obtain the substance, use the substance, or recover from its effects
  6. Important social, occupational or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of substance use
  7. The substance use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance (e.g., continued drinking despite recognition that an ulcer was made worse by alcohol consumption)

Now, I’ve taken more than my share of LSD trips before. Actually, I used to sell acid, among many other drugs in my former life. I knew many people who loved acid, mushrooms, and other hallucinogens (including me) but a few cases stand out in particular.

LSD addiction – Hypotheticals and examples

Given the above definition of substance dependence, any number of combinations of symptoms could qualify someone as being dependent on LSD.

  1. Tolerance buildup for the drug is quick and significant. As anyone who’s ever tried to follow one trip with another knows, the second time requires a lot more acid, and any additional trips increase the amount of LSD needed greatly. Tolerance – Check!
  2. Withdrawal from LSD, especially in the wake of repeated exposures (the multiple trips I was talking about before), includes disorientation, difficulty thinking, fatigue, and sometimes perceptual difficulties (problems with hearing, vision). I’ve experienced this myself, but the best example I’ve seen is of a friend who tried to trip continuously for as long as possible – After about a week and a half, she was eating literally a sheet of acid to feel anything (her boyfriend was a dealer, talk about tolerance). When she stopped because her boyfriend cut her off, she had the hardest time finishing sentences, completing thoughts, or following conversations for nearly three months! Withdrawal – Check!
  3. With the above 2 out of the way, any of the other 5 symptoms can serve to complete the LSD dependence picture. Still, though I’ve never met anyone who tried to stop but couldn’t, I have:
    1. Known people who spent a lot of their time and resources (money) chasing down good acid, paying for it, or preparing for and getting involved in activities that involved LSD.
    2. Many of the people I knew began slacking off at work, sometimes being fired, getting far more lax at school, and neglecting any relationships they had with people who were not involved in their LSD use.
    3. Quite a few of the hard-core LSD users I knew told me time and again that they know their LSD use is causing them difficulties (mostly psychological difficulties) but that fact seemed unable to deter them from buying more acid and continuing down the same path.

So does LSD addiction exist?

Obviously, I believe that LSD dependence exists, though it is no doubt rare. As I’ve stated time and again, I am NOT against the use of drugs. However, I think that drug users’ naive approach to many of these issues, including their constant desire to ignore all signs of the negative consequences of drug abuse, is a big part of the problem here. Ingesting drugs is harmful, but knowing that, I believe people should have the choice to harm themselves, though not others. People with drug problems need help, not jails. Still, to make this a reality, we need to do a much better job of educating ourselves about the true effects of drugs.

I’ve seen LSD destroy lives that took years to rebuild. I’m not talking about people locked away in mental institutions thinking they’re an orange (we’ve all heard that story). But I had friends who became completely unable to live and function in society who gave up friends, significant others, and family for a drug that eventually made them crazy. Some of them are back, some aren’t.

All I’m saying is be careful.