420, smoking weed, and drug problems : Marijuana facts

Co-authored by: Jamie Felzer

It’s April 20th, or 4-20, and anyone who smokes marijuana knows what that means – It’s time to smoke weed- a lot of weed!

In honor of this “stoner” holiday, or perhaps in reverence of its implications, I wanted to put together a post that explored some recent findings having to do with the most commonly used illegal substance in the U.S.
These two studies deal specifically with smoking weed, teenagers, and drug problems.

Study 1 – Misconceptions of marijuana use prevalence

An article in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs has revealed that most young adults greatly overestimate how many of their peers smoke weed. Teens surveyed believed that 98% of their peers smoked marijuana at least once a year – In reality, only 51.5% off the teens reported actually ever smoking marijuana.

To make matters worse, even though only 15% of the teens reported using once a month or more, the estimate among peers was closer to 65%!!! Since we know that perception of peer behavior affects adolescents greatly, such misconceptions can easily lead to false peer-pressure towards marijuana use.

So next time instead of assuming everyone smokes weed, think again.It’s one of the most commonly used drugs but the notion that everyone smokes weed is simply wrong.

Reference: Kilmer, Walker, Lee, Palmer, Mallett, Fabiano, & Larrimer (2006). Misperceptions of College Students Marijuana use: Implications for Prevention. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 67, pp. 277-281.

Study 2 – Teens reducing use can reduce marijuana dependence risk

This next study dealt with early patterns of weed smoking as possible predictors of later problems use. They followed more than 1500 respondents from adolescence (ages 15-17) into young adulthood (ages 21-24).

The article revealed some interesting overall patterns, but I’ll keep the results short and simple, it is 4-20 after all…

The good news? Teens who reduced their use during the first phase of the study (the teens years) were at a significantly lower risk for marijuana dependence and regular use in early adulthood. This suggests that successful interventions may be effective at reducing later problem use.

The bad news? All marijuana smokers who used at least weekly showed the highest risk for later problems even if they reduced their use… This is not that surprising of a finding though since dependence usually involves regular use.

The bottom line? Reducing marijuana use at any stage will lower your risk for later problem use, but those who find themselves smoking often are most likely to end up in some trouble even if they try to cut down. Knowledge is power, so if you think you might be at risk and are concerned, talking to someone can’t hurt. Knowing marijuana facts can’t hurt either.

Reference: Swift, Coffey, Carlin, Degenhardt, Calabria & Patton (2009). Are adolescents who moderate their cannabis use at lower risk of later regular and dependent cannabis use? Addiction, 104, pp 806-814.

For a different view on 420, see this video:


Take Charge of your Life: Another adolescent substance abuse prevention program that doesn’t work.

In a previous post we talked about the ineffectiveness of the school-based substance abuse prevention program called D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education). We reported data from a meta-analysis of 11 studies which showed no significant effect of D.A.R.E. in reducing drug use. A recently published study examined the effectiveness of another school-based program called Take Charge of Your Life (TCYL)
TCYL was developed in 1999 as part of the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study (ASAPS). The ASAPS was a response to the criticism D.A.R.E. was receiving at the time. The goal of the study was to create a more effective program that could utilize D.A.R.E. funding and resources.
The TCYL curriculum consists of 10 lessons in the seventh grade and 7 lessons in the ninth grade which are all taught by trained D.A.R.E. Officers. The TCYL lessons inform students of the personal, social, and legal risks involved with drug use and provide accurate statistical data on drug use. The general philosophy of TCYL is to actively engage students and allow them to make a choice to not use drugs. Like D.A.R.E., the TCYL courses teach communication, decision-making, assertiveness, and refusal skills.
To determine the effectiveness of TCYL, 20,000 seventh graders were enrolled in the study and followed through the ninth grade. Roughly half of these students received the TCYL curriculum while the other half did not.
The results from the study show a negative effect, where TCYL actually increased alcohol and cigarette use among baseline nonusers, compared to students who did not receive TCYL. Clearly, this is not what the developers of TCYL were hoping to see. However, what is equally interesting from the results is a positive effect, where TCYL decreased marijuana use among students who were already using marijuana when the study began. This finding reinforces the idea that people can be affected by the same program differently.
Perhaps the lesson to be learned from the mixed results of TCYL is that prevention programs need to be designed to take into account people’s individual differences. The traditional “one size fits all” approach to prevention may not be the most effective
*D.A.R.E. has not adopted the TCYL curriculum and will continue to teach the relatively new “keepin’ it REAL” curriculum, whose effectiveness has yet to be determined.

Teen smoke

Contributing co-author: Andrew Chen

In a previous post we talked about the ineffectiveness of the school-based substance abuse prevention program called D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education). We reported data from a meta-analysis of 11 studies which showed no significant effect of D.A.R.E. in reducing drug use. A recently published study examined the effectiveness of another school-based program called Take Charge of Your Life (TCYL).

TCYL was developed in 1999 as part of the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study (ASAPS). The ASAPS was a response to the criticism D.A.R.E. was receiving at the time. The goal of the study was to create a more effective program that could utilize D.A.R.E. funding and resources.

The TCYL curriculum consists of 10 lessons in the seventh grade and 7 lessons in the ninth grade which are all taught by trained D.A.R.E. Officers. The TCYL lessons inform students of the personal, social, and legal risks involved with drug use and provide accurate statistical data on drug use. The general philosophy of TCYL is to actively engage students and allow them to make a choice to not use drugs. Like D.A.R.E., the TCYL courses teach communication, decision-making, assertiveness, and refusal skills.

To determine the effectiveness of TCYL, 20,000 seventh graders were enrolled in the study and followed through the ninth grade. Roughly half of these students received the TCYL curriculum while the other half did not.

The results from the study show a negative effect, where TCYL actually increased alcohol and cigarette use among baseline nonusers, compared to students who did not receive TCYL. Clearly, this is not what the developers of TCYL were hoping to see. However, what is equally interesting from the results is a positive effect, where TCYL decreased marijuana use among students who were already using marijuana when the study began. This finding reinforces the idea that people can be affected by the same program differently.

Perhaps the lesson to be learned from the mixed results of TCYL is that prevention programs need to be designed to take into account people’s individual differences. In addition to previous drug use, developers need to understand how race, gender, personality, and other individual variables affect the success or failure of their program. Without this understanding, “one size fits all” programs like D.A.R.E. and TCYL can easily end up causing more harm than good.

*D.A.R.E. has not adopted the TCYL curriculum and continues to teach the relatively new “keepin’ it REAL” curriculum, whose effectiveness has yet to be determined.

Citation:

Sloboda, Z., Stephens, R.C. , Grey, S.S., Teasdale, B, Hawthorne, R.D., Williams, J., and Marquette, J.F. (2009) The adolescent substance abuse prevention study: A randomized field trial of a universal substance abuse prevention program. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 102(1-3)

About addiction: Exercise, stigma, marijuana, and friendhip.

Here we are again. I’ve been slacking on this, but check out the new crop of great articles about addiction. As usual, if you press the title of this post, you’ll be rewarded with our relevant posts!!!

MSNBC: Exercise may help prevent substance abuse – Here’s an article that reports on some of the findings I’d recently talked about here.

Addiction Inbox: Treating addicts like human beings – About the stigma and shame associated with addiction.

Addiction tomorrow: Marijuana – a gateway drug?

Addiction recovery basic: Friendship in recovery – Having social support and friends is important, especially when trying to make huge changes in lifestyle like quitting an addiction.

More drug addiction research from CPDD: Teenage smoking, childhood trauma, and marijuana withdrawal

Today, I’ll give a short summary of a few interesting talks I saw at the conference:

  1. Teenage smoking – Children of mothers who used drugs during pregnancy had abnormal stress hormone levels. When assessed over time, their abnormal stress response was associated with an earlier onset (age of first use) of cigarettes smoking and an increased amount and frequency of smoking cigarettes.
  2. Childhood trauma and drug use – Children who experienced excessive childhood trauma had altered brain activity (in the Nucleus Accumbens specifically) and showed increased anxiety. This area, which is important for essentially all learning, was differentially activated in a way that correlated with the amount of childhood trauma.
  3. Marijuana withdrawal and relapse to marijuana use – Marijuana withdrawal, which might soon be added to the APA‘s DSM (in version 5) was characterized as: Increased irritability, restlessness, and misery, reduced sleep quality, sleep duration, and food intake. When tested, restlessness, sleep disturbance, and early wakening were found to be predictors of relapse among participating marijuana users.

About addiction: Meth, pregnancy, codependency, and ADD

Here’s a new set of articles about addiction that are worth taking the time to read. As usual, don’t forget that if you click the title of this post, you’ll get a list of posts on our site that are related to this week’s links (below the post).

Breaking The Cycles: To Talk or Not To talk – A great post about a topic we’ve already mentioned on here

PhysOrg: Crystal Meth during pregnancy

Addiction Today: Families and marijuana use

Science Blogs Select: Poppy tea can kill you

ADD ADHD Blog – Nascar and ADD – I’ve long thought that there was a relationship between impulse control problems and other conditions that are more acceptable than drug addiction…

That’s it for now, enjoy!

Marijuana addiction – Literature search results on marijuana facts

My recent post on marijuana’s addictive potential received some scathing comments from readers who seem to think that the scientists have already agreed that marijuana addiction (called marijuana dependence in the field) does not exist. So, I’ve compiled this little list of research articles. I’ve made certain to only use articles that have been cited often (in other work), meaning that their content has made an impact. Each of these papers has been cited at least 50 times (except for the very recent last review with about 40). Once again, I find it odd that only marijuana users are so insistent about their drug having no negative aspects whatsoever.

1. Laura Jean Bierut, MD; Stephen H. Dinwiddie, MD; Henri Begleiter, MD; Raymond R. Crowe, MD; Victor Hesselbrock, PhD; John I. Nurnberger, Jr, MD, PhD; Bernice Porjesz, PhD; Marc A. Schuckit, MD; Theodore Reich, MD (1998). Familial Transmission of Substance Dependence: Alcohol, Marijuana, Cocaine, and Habitual Smoking. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, pp. 982-988.

2. Budney A. J.; Novy P. L.; Hughes J. R (1999). Marijuana withdrawal among adults seeking treatment for marijuana dependence. Addiction, 94, pp. 1311-1322.

3. AJ Budney, ST Higgins, KJ Radonovich, PL Novy (2000). Adding voucher-based incentives to coping skills and motivational enhancement improves outcomes during treatment for marijuana dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 1051-1061.

4. William R. True, Andrew C. Heath, Jeffrey F. Scherrer, Hong Xian, Nong Lin, Seth A. Eisen, Michael J. Lyons, Jack Goldberg, Ming T. Tsuang (1999). Interrelationship of genetic and environmental influences on conduct disorder and alcohol and marijuana dependence symptoms. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 8, 391-397.

5. Aimee L. McRae, Pharm.D., Alan J. Budney, Ph.D., Kathleen T. Brady, M.D., Ph.D. (2003). Treatment of marijuana dependence: a review of the literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 24, 369-376.