Teens and drugs: Drug use statistics and treatment that works

Here are some drug use statistics:

  • Over 80% of teens engage in some form of deviant behavior (1).
  • Over 50% of high-school seniors admit to having used drugs (2).
  • Only 10%-15% of the population develop drug addiction problems related to their drug use (1).

The question is:

If the majority of teens experiment with drug use, and so few eventually develop drug addiction problems, should we be focusing on something other than stopping kids from trying drugs? Continue reading “Teens and drugs: Drug use statistics and treatment that works”

About Addiction: Alcohol, drugs, marriage, taxes, and teens

You’ve come back and we love it! As a reward, we’re going to give you some of the best information about addiction on the web, free of charge. Really! No, seriously, we’re really happy to have you back learning about addiction here on A3. Now go on.

Alcohol: Marriage, Sports Games, and Price Planning

Science Daily– We have already talked about what alcoholism can do to you body as well as what it can do to your brain on A3. This article highlights what it could do to your marriage, specifically delaying it and possibly causing early separation. Just one more thing to think about for those thinking of tying the knot any time soon.

BBC News-In an effort to reduce crime in England the government wants to set a minimum price for alcohol so that it could no longer be sold at a price that is untaxable. Home Office projections indicate 7000 crimes could be cut in a year. The increase in cost would also result in a benefit to the nation’s health given projections form Sheffield University, which estimated last year that raising the price of alcohol to a minimum of 50p per unit would mean that after a decade there would be almost 3,000 fewer deaths every year and 41,000 fewer cases of chronic illness. The projection are dependent on the notion that price will affect demand and therefore use, something that has been shown to be less true among dependent individuals.

Med – A new study found that alcohol dependence is a strong predictor of early separation in marriage. In addition to this finding the results showed that if an individuals parents were dependent on alcohol  both men and women were more likely to separate early in marriage. This some very early evidence, but more research is being conducted.

Science Daily– Often times sports games are a great way to have fun. However, about eight percent of fans are legally drunk after leaving sports games according to a recent study published in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research (ACER). Researchers administered a breath test and found that 60% of the fans had zero BAC, 40% had a positive BAC, and nearly 8% were legally drunk. This problem could be resolved through better training of alcohol servers, and setting a limit to how much alcohol an individual can purchase, about 74% of the time an intoxicated individual was still able to buy alcohol. That is assuming these people are getting into cars and driving or starting fights… Otherwise, I say let them drink and walk it off.

Drugs: Texting & Fighting Teen Drug Use

News Feed– Restricting texting for teenagers may be a good idea as a new study shows that teens who “hyper-text” ( text more than 120 times a day) are more likely to be sexually active, drink alcohol and do illegal drugs compared to teens that text less. I wonder if they’re also sexting more… maybe while drunk or high. I guess future research should examine negative outcomes in this group – addiction, pregnancy, arrest and so on.

Time– The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has declared Nov. 8–14 National Drug Facts Week, in order to help prevent teen drug problems. The goal of this drug facts week is to present teens with factual information about drugs and drug abuse. Read this article and take NIDA’s Drug IQ Challenge here (warning: the online quiz begins with the loud sound of shattering glass, which may jolt adult nerves). Effective drug prevention requires open and honest communication information about drugs between parents and children.

About Addiction: Synthetic drugs, binge drinking, and recovery

You didn’t think we’d let you go a whole week without giving you another of our amazing updates about addiction news and research from around the globe did you? I’m sure you didn’t, and you were right! Here we are again with some good old discussions of marijuana, alcohol binge drinking, and other issues relevant to addiction and drug use. We hope you like it.

Synthetic Drugs and Marijuana

Greenbay Press Gazette– K2 is being sold and marketed as a legal substitute for marijuana and is also referred to as “Spice,” “Genie,” “Zohai” or simply “legal weed”. Apparently, cops in Wisconsin don’t like it too much and even though it hasn’t been banned in that state, they’re making trouble for those who sell it and store owners are complying by removing K2 products from their shelves.

Time– Another article examining the question “is marijuana addictive?” According the DSM, addiction is the compulsive use of a substance despite ongoing negative consequences, which may lead to tolerance or withdrawal symptoms when the substance is stopped. Although only about 10% of people who smoke marijuana become addicted to it by this definition, the real issue is how harmful the drug may be and what consequences it may produce for individuals who are using compulsively.

Science Daily– Speaking of negative impacts of marijuana use, this article discusses the possible neurobiological implications of marijuana and alcohol use during adolescence. Binge drinking in adolescence is a relatively common occurrence in many circles and it can detrimentally affect  cognitive functioning, especially in terms of attention and executive function.  Marijuana was found to, not surprisingly, leave adolescent users with impaired memory performance. The fact that this drug use is occurring during a sensitive developmental period likely doesn’t help.

ABC News– Kids aren’t the only ones who binge drink. Mothers who binge drink during pregnancy are increasing the chances that their babies will develop attention and memory deficits. It was estimated that about 40,000 infants are born each year with neurological and developmental damage that was caused by binge drinking. We’ve written about fetal alcohol syndrome in the past, and this piece touches on the same issues.

Addiction, recovery, and the good old drug trade

The Messenger– This article uses everyday language to explain the evolution of addiction and specifically seven signs that causal substance use is evolving into dependence. I can’t say I agree with everything said here, especially some of the statistics, but it’s a nice read, and as long as you recognize it for what it is – a very dumbed-down version of the real account of things – you’ll hopefully enjoy it!

Breaking the cycles– Sober Living Environments (SLEs)  is a term which is often spoken in  addiction/alcoholism treatment and recovery programs. Sober living houses provide recovering addicts with a drug-free environment in order to complete the transition from a residential treatment setting to stabilization and reintegration to a normal life.

Addiction Inbox– The UN has been monitoring designer drug trade. This report displays emerging trends in synthetic drug use. The drugs that are being observed are amphetamine-type stimulants, as well as designer drugs such as mephedrone, atypical synthetics like ketamine, synthetic opioids like fentanyl, and old standbys like LSD. The article gives a complete list of the findings of drugs used in a variety of countries and it is very fascinating.

About Addiction: Drug use, Addiction Recovery, and smoking

We’re back with our weekly post about addiction news and research. We’ve got harm reduction in Australia, heroin ads that don’t work, the impact of drug abuse on children, and more. Get your 30 seconds of education for the day.

Using Drugs – Heroin, HIV, the law, and recovery

The Australian– There is a state approved heroin injecting room in Australia. The center opened to create a safer place for drug users to shoot heroin. 3500 individuals have overdosed on the premises without a single fatality, making for a very interesting way of combating drug addiction that would definitely fall under that harm-reduction model American hate so much!

Star Advertiser– When it comes to scaring individuals into not using drugs, specifically heroin, fear appeals do not seem to work in preventing future drug users. Fear appeals ads show drug users as violent, and often have missing teeth or skin problems. Apparently, audiences are smart enough to see these as not really representative of heroin users in general and they’re not buying it, making the ads useless in combating drug addiction.

Global Development– Eastern Europe and Central Asia have the fastest growth rate of HIV infection in the world (Russia accounts for between 60% and 70% of the epidemic). This may be due to sharing dirty needles when using drugs and the biggest problem is likely lack of prevention efforts for high risk groups.

Guardian– A senior police officer from Britain thinks that individuals should not be criminally prosecuted for possessing marijuana. By focusing less on drugs found among youth the police can focus on things they see as more important like hard core criminals. I’m sure our legalization friends will love this, although again, this isn’t legalization but decriminalization and parents will hate it.

Addiction Inbox– Meditation and exercise play a role in drug addiction recovery. Both methods apparently help to eliminate the panic and anxiety that plays a role in detoxification. Although it may not be the most popular method of recovery, we at A3 have already written about this and think you should give it a try!

Breaking the cycles–  A program called Partnership for a Drug Free America has five new drug programs in order to eliminate drug use among teens. These programs educate teens as well as their parents with a variety to drug information.

Smoking, pregnancy, and attitude

Science Daily- Women who smoke during pregnancy can hinder their children’s coordination and physical control (likely affecting boys more). Smoking during pregnancy can damage development in the fetal stage, so if you are expecting try not to light up (as our other post on pregnancy and smoking recommends).

Decoder– You are in for a good read on the changing attitudes of smoking. This blog gives an inside perspective on smoking and how it has evolved from the time it was considered “cool”.

Addiction’s impact on others

Philly Daily News- Addiction impacts not only the drug addict but their children as well. 15% of all children live in a household with an alcoholic and one in four children is exposed to a family member’s alcohol abuse or dependence. These children are often neglected when their parents are under the influence and that neglect can lead to some pretty terrible outcomes for the children themselves down the line.

Addiction Recovery– This is an excellent read on the importance of patience when it comes to addiction recovery. Rome wasn’t built in a day and neither will a drug addict’s wonderful new life. Recovery takes time so take a deep  breath and enjoy!

About Addiction: Prescription drugs, Alcohol prices, and prevention among teens

You know you care about addiction, and you know you love reading addiction news and research – A3 does it all for you and gathers things up in a nice little package we call our weekly “about addiction” post. It’s the fastest way to get the information you want, even if you didn’t know it was out there!

Prescription Drugs, drug safety, and sales

Reuters– Walgreen’s offers its customers a convenient way of disposing of their prescription drugs. This allows individuals to safely dispose of unwanted or expired drugs. The way that the program works is to place the unwanted prescription drugs in an envelope and send it to a medication incinerator. Controlled substances however are excluded from the program, I guess they’re afraid of bags of heroin and cocaine showing up at Walgreen offices?

Wales online– After being bugged to see if a man was in possession of illegal drugs, a number of men were sentenced to 48 years in jail for selling heroin. This undercover investigation lasted for six months, revealing a magnificent economy of drug use, abuse and profit.

Discovery News– Authorities discovered that eight illicit drugs, including cocaine, ecstasy, and methamphetamines, were detectable in the waterways of a Spanish national park. They’re worried about the threat of the drugs’ side effects to animals, but I have to say it makes me wonder why so many drug addicts are dumping their drugs there…

Alcohol Prices

Telegraph (U.K.)– A “price fixing”  system for alcohol prices has been suggested in the U.K., which is supposed to help reduce binge drinking encouraged by bottom priced alcohol. Economics experts in England suggest that all the policy will likely do will be increase profits for store that sell cheap alcohol. If our work here is any indication though, driving alcohol price up (as much as 100% in some stores) will certainly have an effect on some drinkers.

Health DayTax increases in alcohol prices may aid in alleviating alcohol problems. A study was conducted which showed that increasing the alcohol prices will result in significant reductions in many of the undesirable outcomes associated with drinking. So next time you go to buy alcohol and the price is too high just think of all the help you’re providing the community.

Addiction interventions and addiction treatment of teens

Time to act!- Perhaps one of the most important ways to prevent an addiction from happening is to catch it in its early stages and prevent it from ever developing. This website promotes primary prevention of as a means of addiction intervention and urges parents to act as soon as possible if you think your child is using drugs or alcohol.

DBtechno– Children who have regular meals are less likely to drink (read our coverage of teen drinking). This was attributed to parents having better, more consistent, interactions with their children at the dinner table. Kids who did not eat regular meals were twice as likely to drink and use cigarettes. Talk about a great way at starting on an addiction intervention early on in life – a nice relaxing dinner, and maybe some dessert…

ABC News– This article tells of the ill effects that alcohol can have to a child when alcohol is consumed during pregnancy. It tells the story of one family who could not stand their child’s “out of control behavior” likely brought on by FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome). Read All About Addiction’s coverage of drinking during pregnancy.

Addiction Inbox– A great article using Dock Ellis’ perspective on LSD. Ellis is now speaking to inmates in correctional facilities, telling his story of how he was addicted to drugs and alcohol while playing baseball.

Drugs and Pregnancy Part II: Cigarettes and Weed

We’ve already covered the issue of drinking alcohol while pregnant. Now it’s time for smoking.

When a pregnant mother smokes cigarettes, nicotine and carbon monoxide pass across the placental barrier. This disrupts the normal transfer of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus, harming its development.

Smoking in pregnancy

It’s been estimated that nearly 1 in 10 American women smoke cigarettes while pregnant (1). This is an alarming statistic considering that studies have repeatedly shown maternal smoking to be associated with adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight (LBW), miscarriage, and infant mortality.

LBW infants are the result of a preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, or both. Nearly twice as many infants born to smokers have a low birth weight when compared to infants of nonsmokers (1), putting them at risk for cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and learning problems. Smoking during pregnancy has also been linked to respiratory disease and sudden infant death syndrome (2).

The effect of maternal smoking on the fetus depends on when it occurs. As we’d reported with drinking, smoking does the most harm during the early stages of pregnancy and the least during the later stages of pregnancy.

What about marijuana?

Woman smoking weedStudies of marijuana use during pregnancy provide some inconsistent results. Some studies link maternal marijuana use to growth retardation, preterm birth, decreased head circumference, and learning disabilities (3). One study concluded that marijuana has no adverse effects on children up to the age of 3, but after age 3, children who are exposed to cannabis in-utero are more likely to demonstrate attention deficit, hyperactivity, delinquent behavior, and decreased reasoning ability (4). Other studies find absolutely no association between marijuana and adverse birth outcomes.

The truth is, we don’t really know what marijuana use during pregnancy does to an infant, partially because researchers face two unique problems when studying maternal marijuana use:

1) Social stigma against drug use during pregnancy is likely causing women nationwide to under report their marijuana use.

2) Marijuana users are more likely to be using alcohol, cigarettes, and other illicit drugs. It is well known that poly-drug use during pregnancy greatly increases the chance of adverse birth outcomes (5).

So, smoking cigarettes and weed apparently does not consistently cause the same harm that drinking causes. However, the harm brought about by smoking seems to depend less on the amount smoked and more on the combination of substances used and its timing.

Keep on the lookout for more posts on drug use during pregnancy!

Citations:

1. Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., Sutton, P. D., et al., (2003). Births: Final data for 2005, National Vital Statistics Reports, 56(6)

2. Difranza, J. R., Aligne, C.A., & Weitzman, M., (2004). Prenatal and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children’s health, Pediatrics, 113, pg 1007-1015

3. Hatch, E. E., & Bracken, M.B., (1986) Effect of marijuana use in pregnancy on fetal growth, American Journal of Epidemiology, 124, pg 986-993.

4. Huizink, A. C., Mulder, E. J. H., (2006). Maternal smoking, drinking, or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, pg 24-41

5. Hall W., and Solowij, N., (1998). Adverse effects of cannabis. The Lancet, 352, pg 1611-1616

Drugs and Pregnancy: Drinking while pregnant

A number of questions from readers, as well as some of the searches that have landed users on this site (yes, we get to see that) have made me realize that many of you are wondering about the effects of drugs and alcohol on pregnancies. Especially given the fact that my wife is now pregnant with our first child, I think this is an important topic that deserves attention; for this reason, I’m going to dedicate a few posts to it, paying close attention to different classes of drugs. Given the fact that one of the most commonly used substance among my readers (per this poll) is alcohol, we’re going to start there.

Alcohol and pregnancy

Doctors frequently advise mothers-to-be to abstain from alcohol during their pregnancy. However, avoiding alcohol is difficult given how common it is in social situations. Also, many mothers-to-be are unconvinced and continue drinking, perhaps reducing their consumption, but not stopping altogether. So, can a glass of wine a day really have any impact on an infant’s health?

The most critical effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, aside from stillbirth (1), are a collection of symptoms known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), estimated to occur in approximately 1-7 per 1000 live births (2). FAS individuals suffer a wide range of mental handicaps including diminished intellectual ability, and learning difficulties. Children with FAS exhibit poor socialization and frequently engage in disruptive and maladaptive behaviors. Additionally, they are more susceptible to drug abuse, criminal behavior, and psychiatric disorders. Research seems to indicate that drinking more than a single daily drink at least doubles the probability of producing a significantly growth-retarded infant (3). Drinking less than one daily drink seems to bring about a much lower risk for serious growth-related effects, though the more subtle effects of any alcohol consumptions are still being investigated. Even a single drink a day has been shown to be associated with reduced infant weight and an increased probability of preterm birth (4).

Remember: When considering alcohol in research, a single drink means the equivalent of a single ounce of pure alcohol. A 12 oz. beer or an 8 oz. glass of wine, but no more, would be equivalent. Also, an average of one drink per day does not mean that drinking five drinks on Friday and laying off alcohol for the rest of the week is okay. Even a single binge drinking episode greatly increases the risk of complications! Finally, drinking during the first trimester is far more dangerous to a growing fetus than doing so later in the pregnancy.

So in short, toasting champagne at a wedding, or enjoying an occasional glass of wine with dinner will most likely not do great harm to an ongoing pregnancy. Just be very conscientious of your behavior and be sure not to let things get out of hand. This is certainly an issue where a single night of letting go could result in a lifetime of regret. If you find it difficult to reduce your use after finding out about a pregnancy, it could be an early sign of trouble drinking or even alcoholism…

Look for upcoming posts on smoking and drug use risks to pregnancy!

Citations:

1) Kesmodel, U. Wisborg, K, Olsen, S.F., Henriksen, T.B., & Secher, N.J. (2002). Moderate alcohol intake during pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth and death in the first year of life. American journal of epidemiology, 155(4), 305-312

2) Niccols, A. (2007). Fetal alcohol syndrome and the developing socio-emotional brain. Brain and cognition, 65, 135-142.

3) Mills, J.L., Graubard, B.I., Harley, E.E., Rhoads, G.G. & Berendes, H.W. (1984). Maternal alcohol consumption and birth weight. How much drinking during pregnancy is safe? Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 252.

4) Dew, P.C., Guillory, V. J., Okah, F.A., Cai, J., & Hoff, G.L. (2007). The effect of health compromising behaviors on preterm births. Maternal and child health journal, 11(3), 227-233.