December 6th, 2012
All About Addiction has profiled stories of college addiction
in the past, but most have centered on illegal drugs and the rampant problem of alcohol abuse
. Education blogger Valerie Harris joins the community today to talk about a very disturbing new trend: the rise of “study aid” dependencies, usually in the form of prescription ADHD
meds like Adderall
. Valerie writes a student resource website
for those looking into different college and grad school options, and is an expert in many of the issues modern students face. As prescription drug abuse
is a major problem in our society, a specific focus on prescriptions relevant to college students
is noteworthy.Study Drug Addiction Plagues Students From Masters Programs to Community College
Illicit Adderall usage on college campuses
has been on the rise in recent years, mostly stemming from its use as a study aid. The amphetamine salts that make up Adderall accelerate the heart rate and increase alertness, enabling students to put in long hours of continuous and focused study. However, due to its amphetamine base, Adderall can also be addictive, leading some students to use the drug as a crutch, causing long term issues both academic and social.
A 2009 article in the Cornell Sun stated that Adderall was estimated to be used by 6% of college students, while a 2011 survey in the journal Addiction reported that on some campuses, as many as 25% of students were abusing the drug. A study conducted by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that 15% of college students have illegally ingested Adderall, Ritalin or another stimulant in the past year, while only 2% of these hold a prescription for the drug. This suggests that there might be an overall increase in Adderall abuse although longitudinal data from single sources is relatively scarce.
In light of this possible increase, and the problems associated with it, universities are beginning to fight back. Recently, Duke University added “the unauthorized use of prescription medication to enhance academic performance” to its student conduct policies that equate to academic dishonesty. Wesleyan and Dartmouth have also amended their policies to include a ban on prescription drug abuse, while students with ADHD prescriptions at George Washington University are told to purchase a safe for their dorm. Other schools more aggressively target potential dealers.
The Illusion of Safety
Due to its prescription drug status, many college students believe Adderall to be safe and non-addictive. It’s true that when used with a prescription and with the supervision of a doctor, Adderall can be safe. However, when used without a prescription Adderall use is essentially akin to unregulated speed abuse. As an amphetamine drug, Adderall is listed by the Drug Enforcement Agency as a Schedule II Controlled Substance, meaning anyone caught with pills not prescribed by a doctor is subjected to the same criminal charges as those possessing opiates or methamphetamine. Schedule II drugs involve an extremely high risk of addiction and overdose, as well as a potential to lead to depression or heart failure.
A University of Pittsburgh newspaper notes that side effects can include irregular heart rate, increased blood pressure, headaches, sleep deprivation, and loss of appetite, among others. When abused, the adverse effects of the drug can be substantially exacerbated. Instances of acute exhaustion or psychosis during withdrawal have been documented, and when it’s mixed with alcohol, Adderall can even cause death. Among young people with developing prefrontal cortexes, the effects can be even more pronounced and long-term, essentially changing the chemistry of the brain.
Perhaps the biggest hurdle schools and medical professionals face in weaning students away from prescription drug addiction in their genuine effectiveness. Still, statistics show that students using Adderall illicitly are often far from the highest achieving, with an average GPA among abusers
of less than 3.0. The fact that the vast majority of students who take Adderall use it legally and likely suffer with learning disabilities clearly affects these performance numbers, but it is clear that Adderall is not a panacea. Students who truly achieve long term success usually do so by disciplining themselves and utilizing time effective time management skills. “The most important thing to have for time management is some kind of system” says Kelci Lynn Lucier
, author of The College Parent Handbook. “Some students use the calendars are their phones: others use things like Google Calendar; others still use the classic paper-calendar model.”Lucier also asserts the importance of maintaining a regular and appropriate sleep schedule
. “While it may be common among college students, a lack of sleep is more detrimental than you might think,” says Lucier. “It can throw everything out of whack: your mental health, your physical health, your stress level, and, of course, your schedule.”There is no doubt that Adderall offers a short-term solution for students that are behind in their studies, their sleep, or generally overwhelmed by their many burdens. However, the adverse effects of continued use on one’s mental and physical health, as well as the potential risks towards one’s education and future success, can prove devastating. Students who are genuinely invested their academics and career training are often best served by taking the time to study while maintaining a disciplined and manageable lifestyle.
October 30th, 2011
A recent development (check it out here) might lead the way to a quicker, more easily administered drug test. Instead of the lab analysis of urine, blood, or other fluids, this recent technology might allow first responders, such as EMTs, to assess a person’s exposure to drugs (prescription and otherwise) by simply dipping this device (think pregnancy test) into their saliva.
As of right now, the researchers have been able to demonstrate the success of the technology with cocaine, but it shouldn’t be too long before they can provide similar devices for many different drugs.
Now, it’s true that I usually focus on abused drugs in this blog, but this technology could help medical professionals identify dangerous drug interactions common to many prescribed, properly taken, medications. Given the huge increases in prescription medication abuse in the United States, that could be extremely useful and might save some of the 12,000 lives annually lost to accidental overdoses.
Maybe when these devices get cheap enough they can be used in addiction treatment centers to provide more immediate testing results.
Who knows, one day, the technology might be widespread enough to make home drug-testing a simple reality. Whether that’s a good or bad thing should probably be left to another post…
|Posted in: Education
Tags: cocaine, devices, drug, drug test, Drugs, emergency, EMT, Medications, prescription, prescription drug abuse, rehab, saliva, technology, treatment
February 28th, 2011
There’s so much to learn about addiction nowadays – Psychological theories, new stories, neuroscience research, and more. At All About Addiction we try to make the information easy to digest, so when you need to sort of the latest information about addiction, come see us, we’ll help.
Harm reduction – Heroin and Injecting Drugs
Irish Examiner-After four individuals died from heroin overdoses in Ireland drug workers are issuing warnings to heroin users. The heroin that is being used is of better quality so it elevates the risk for overdose. Heroin has been off of the streets of Ireland for the past couple of months due to supplying issues but now heroin is back, and it is so pure that it is killing people. Another issue could be that the short absence of the drug has left people with less tolerance then before.
The Body– The International Harm Reduction Association (IHRA) and HIV rights groups are urging the UN’s to legalize methadone in order to fight HIV/AIDS and heroin addiction In Russia. Russia is home to 1 million HIV-positive people (for comparison, the U.S> has about 500,000) and has one of the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics in the world. In addition to this Russia has 3 million heroin addicts. Russia is refusing to employ harm reduction programs such as needle exchanges, or to legalize methadone to treat heroin addicts. Many Russian officials such as Gennady Onishchenko feel that legalizing methadone will not help as it is “just another narcotic.” We’ve hear the same argument here, but perhaps the IHRA can convince Russia to use harm reduction problems in order to help individuals.
Harm Reduction Coalition– This “webinar” allow its viewers to gain cultural competency when it comes to learning about the injecting drug user. It asks questions like: “Why is there a need for IDU cultural competency?” and “What is IDU Cultural Competency?”. Check out the webinar and see what it has to offer!
Mental Health and Prescription Drug Withdrawal in Newborns
Orlando Sentinel– Prescription drug abuse is already a problem in our society; in Florida alone prescription abuse is responsible for at least seven deaths a day. Prescription drug abuse is becoming even more problematic as it is now affecting newborns. In 2009 alone 1,000 babies were born and treated for drug-withdrawal syndrome. In the past babies that were going through drug-withdrawal symptoms were most likely to suffer from crack cocaine addiction but now the babies are more likely to be addicted to prescription drugs.
Science Daily– A study was conducted and found that children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two to three times more likely than children without the disorder to develop serious substance abuse problems in adolescence and adulthood. Kate Humphreys, a colleague of Dr. Jaffe’s and a graduate student at UCLA was a coauthor of the research.
Addiction Recovery- Peer support
Stop Medicine Abuse-Often times it is best for teens to get information from their peers in order for something to have an effect in their lives. This website approaches substance abuse prevention with that specific mentality. Check out the testimony on this website as well as other resources that can be used by teens to learn about drug abuse.
|Posted in: Links
Tags: about addiction, abuse, addiction, ADHD, cultural competency, drug, drug abuse, drug withdrawal, harm, harm reduction, heroin, prescription drug, prescription drug abuse, UCLA
January 17th, 2011
If you care about addiction you’re going to want to read our weekly update from across the globe. It’ll make you smarter – promise (at least when it comes to alcohol and drug abuse issues)!
Drug Abuse – Vaccines to treat addictions, and Sniffing Bath Salts
Medical News Today-A biochemical breakthrough by researchers at Cornell produces a unique vaccine that combines bits of the common cold virus with a particle that mimics cocaine. Researchers believe the vaccine could be tailored to treat other addictions, such as to nicotine, heroin, and methamphetamine. While similar to other vaccine discussions we’ve had here, the method and generalizability here are of specific interest.
BBC News-Publicity of scholastic journals back fired on Dr. David E. Nichols as drug makers profit off his research findings. Dr. Nichols says while some drugs can be manufactured in the kitchen the scale to which these “legal high” drugs are produced indicates some small companies are involved.
Fox News.com– A new “drug abuse” trend of sniffing bath salts to try to get high is emerging in Louisiana and is creating a issue for the Louisiana Poison Center. It appears that more kids are attempting this “trend” resulting in of paranoia, hallucinations, delusions, as well as hypertension and chest pain. The problem’s gotten so bad in the state that the Governor had to make the active ingredient in the bath salts illegal. The bath salts contain a chemical called “Mephadrone and Methylenedioxypyrovalerone or MDPV, which is known to be a stimulant that may also cause paranoia and hostility.
Alcoholism – Studies and Personal Stories about alcohol
Science Daily- A new study has been conducted which shows that midlife alcohol consumption may be related to dementia which is often assessed about 20 years later. The study found that both abstainers and heavy drinkers had a greater risk for dementia and cognitive impairment than light drinkers. Again, it seems that drinking no-alcohol is associated with risk factors and outcomes that are not as ideal as moderate consumption and somewhat similar to heavy drinking.
Counselor Magazine Blog- Everyone loves watching a good and inspirational movie from time to time. The new movie “Country Strong” deals with many issues that everyday individuals face such as alcoholism, mental illness, co-dependency, ageism, and grief. These are elements that a person goes through when they are dealing with alcoholism. The movie depicts that alcoholism is a family disease and does not affect just the alcoholic. Another great point that the movie shows is that if there are underlying issues that are often not resolved that relapse is very common.
Prescription Drug abuse and death
Reuters- A new study has found that an increasing amount of individuals are dying from abusing and misusing prescription drugs as well as illegal drugs. In recent times deaths from “accidental poisonings” or overdose are more than ten times higher than they were in the late 1960s. This increase in drug deaths is higher across almost all age groups than it was in previous decades, especially amongst white Americans.
Chicago Sun Times- Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in our country, and deaths from unintentional drug overdoses in the US have increased five-fold over the last two decades. The drugs that are commonly causing these deaths are particularly painkillers such as OxyContin (oxycodone), Vicodin (hydrocodone) and fentanyl. What many individuals do not realize is prescription drugs can be much more deadly than illegal drugs. In 2007 alone, abuse of prescription painkillers was responsible for more overdose deaths than heroin and cocaine combined. Prescription painkillers, most of which are opioids, are synthetic versions of opium used to relieve moderate to severe chronic pain, however in large and excessive quantities, they can suppress a person’s ability to breathe and are very dangerous when they are mixed with alcohol or other drugs.
|Posted in: Education
Tags: about addiction, addiction, Alcohol, alcoholism, bath salts, BBC, cocaine, Country Strong, crystal meth, death, drug, drug abuse, Drugs, heroin, illegal drugs, methamphetamine, new study, nicotine, opiates, overdose, prescription, prescription drug, prescription drug abuse, prescription drugs, sniffing bath salts, stories, vaccine
August 12th, 2010
On last week’s episode of A&E’s Intervention, we were able to see how a prescription drug abuse problem can devastate the lives of addicts and their families. As we’ve already mentioned on A3, prescription drug abuse is the fastest growing drug problem in the U.S. at the moment having gone up more than 400% in only a few years.
Prescription Drug Abuse on A&E’s Intervention
Andrew, a 21-year-old, had been terribly addicted to OxyContin for the past 4 years. Because of his addiction, his father and two brothers were on the brink of homelessness as they watched Andrew snort his father’s last 40 dollars. This now made them unable to pay for the motel they had been staying in and all knew it was only a matter of time before they would be asked to leave.
Andrew’s journey with addiction began at 13 when he started experimenting with alcohol and marijuana. By 14, Andrew was using cocaine, crack, and ecstacy. He had also dropped out of school. By 17 he had a baby on the way and had begun his love affair with OxyContin. Though OxyContin is a prescription painkiller, it is attributed to a growing number of debilitating addictions and deaths every year. As the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration warns, “OxyContin abuse can lead to weakened skeletal muscle, heart and respiratory failure and death”.
Oxycontin – the other heroin addiction
OxyContin is the brand name of the drug Oxycodone and is also known as “hillbilly heroin”. Many who abuse OxyContin crush the pills and then either snort or inject them, giving them a very similar high to that of heroin. Research has shown that when adolescent mice are exposed to OxyContin, lifelong and permanent changes to the brain’s reward system result. OxyContin is highly addictive and withdrawal symptoms are severe. OxyContin related deaths are usually linked to ingestion of the drug in combination with some other depressant of the central nervous system such as alcohol or barbiturates. Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the U.S. and according to recent government data, conducted between 1998 and 2008, there has been a 400 percent increase in substance abuse treatment admissions for people abusing prescription drugs.
Like the many others who abuse OxyContin, the drug had taken a fatal grip on Andrew’s life. He now found himself selling drugs to support his habit, stealing from his family and in debt to many drug dealers. In the past 2 years, he had stolen more than $4,000 from his grandmother and in the past year had been in over a dozen drug-related fights. As the dealers were hunting for him, Andrew began to fear for his life.
Gambling addiction can ruin lives
His family’s situation was even worse. His father had lost his car and home and could no longer feed Andrew’s two younger brothers. They often did not eat for days. Andrew’s violent behavior when he did not have the OxyContin made matters worse. Within 2 years, they had been evicted from 7 apartments because of the destruction Andrew caused to them when in a rage. As the situation worsened, Andrew’s father, Dan, was fired from his job of 19 years because he was caught stealing. But just as we begin to blame Andrew for the devastating situation he has placed his family in, the producers of A&E’s intervention revealed that there may be more than one addiction contributing to this family’s pain.
Over the past 9 years, Andrew’s father, Dan, had lost over $80,000 dollars through gambling and had taken more than $100,000 from his mother to support his gambling addiction. Dan had been able to mask his habit by focusing attention on Andrew’s oxycontin addiction. However, once their extended family saw an opportunity for Dan to get help, they came forward, hoping he too would seek treatment.
According to the Illinois Institute for Addiction Recovery, recent evidence indicated that pathological gambling is an addiction similar to chemical addiction. It has been observed that some pathological gamblers have lower levels of norepinephrine than normal gamblers. Norepinephrine is secreted under stress, arousal or thrill so pathological gamblers make up for their deficiency by gambling despite the negative consequences to their lives and the lives of those around them. Brain activation in gambling addict’s brains while receiving a monetary reward has also been linked to the brain activation of a cocaine addict when receiving cocaine. All of this makes gambling addiction difficult to treat and often requires the help of a treatment center or group therapy, like that of drug addiction.
Fortunately, after Andrew agreed to go to a 90-day treatment program, Dan did as well. Andrew has been sober since February 4, 2010 and Dan has not gambled since being featured on A&E’s Intervention. In the future, we’re going to follow up some of our favorite personalities from the show and see how they’re doing now.
|Posted in: Drugs, Education, Treatment
Tags: A&E, A&E's Intervention, abuse, addiction, andrew, drug, drug abuse, gambling, gambling addiction, intervention, oxycontin, prescription drug, prescription drug abuse
July 26th, 2010
This are the new links about addiction and drug abuse. Leave us your feedback!
Red Bull and Alcohol
The Huffington Post: Red bull is a much caffeinated energy drink and when mixed with liquor, it can diminish the awareness of drowsiness, feelings of un-coordination and intoxication. Studies show the added caffeine only makes you believe that you are more in control.
New York Times: A new zero tolerance policy begins for drunk drivers in New York State. Anyone convicted of misdemeanor or felony drunk driving will be required to install an ignition interlock breathalyze device that does not allow the car to start if it detects a threshold level of alcohol on the breath of the driver.
Join Together: Teens who binge drink could be increasing their risk of developing osteoporosis later in life. Adolescent rats who consumed large doses of alcohol suffered genetic damage in areas related to bone formation
Hospital and Emergency Room Admissions
The Herald: Hospital admission for heroin and cocaine overdose increased in Glasgow in four years. There is a rise for the most serious drugs including heroin, cocaine, methadone and morphine and codeine.
AOL health: In 2007, around 12 million Americans visited an emergency room for a mental disorder or/and substance abuse problems. One out of every 8 patients seeking help came in because of drugs or a mental health issue.
Prescription Drug Abuse
The Salt Lake Tribune: Prescription drug abuse is America’s fastest growing drug problem. An estimated 6.2 million people report having misused prescription drugs in the past month. Prescription drug abuse increased in Utah.
Prescription drug abuse up 400%:Here are two different links to articles discussing this through ABC and The Huffington Post.
|Posted in: Alcohol, Drugs, Education, Links, Prescription
Tags: Alcohol, drug abuse, Drugs, drunk driving, hospital, prescription drug abuse, red bull