Crystal meth withdrawal – It’s not like heroin, but don’t expect it to be easy

Heroin, or opiate, withdrawal symptoms is the gold standard of addiction withdrawal. Imagine the worst flu of your life, multiply it by 1000, and then imagine knowing that taking a hit of this stuff will make it all better. Think sweats, fever, shaking, diarrhea, and vomiting. Think excruciating pain throughout as your pain sensors get turned back on after being blocked for way too long. Now you have an abstract idea of the hell and it’s no wonder why heroin withdrawal has become the one every other withdrawal is judged against.

Crystal meth withdrawal

Withdrawing from crystal meth use is nothing like opiate withdrawal and there’s no reason that the withdrawal symptoms should be. Opiates play a significant role in pain modulation and opioid receptors are present in peripheral systems in the body, which is the reason for the stomach aches, nausea, and diarrhea. Dopamine receptors just don’t play those roles in the body and brain, so withdrawal shouldn’t be expected to have the same effect.

But dopamine is still a very important neurotransmitter and quitting a drug  that has driven up dopamine release for a long time should be expected to leave behind some pain, and it does.

One of the important functions of dopamine is in signaling reward activity. When a dopamine spike happens in a specific area of the brain (called the NAc), it signifies that whatever is happening at that moment is “surprisingly” good. The parentheses are there to remind you that the brain doesn’t really get surprised, but the dopamine spike is like a reward signal detector, when it goes up, good things are happening.

Well guess what? During crystal meth withdrawal, when a crystal-meth user stops using meth, the levels of dopamine in the brain go down. To make matters worse, the long-term meth use has caused a decrease in the number of dopamine receptors available which means there’s not only less dopamine, but fewer receptors to activate. It’s not a surprise than that people who quit meth find themselves in a state of anhedonia, or an inability to feel pleasure. Once again, unlike the heroin withdrawal symptoms, anhedonia doesn’t make you throw up and sweat, but it’s a pretty horrible state to be in. Things that bring a smile to a normal person’s face just don’t work on most crystal-meth addicts who are new to recovery. As if that wasn’t bad enough, it can take as long as two years of staying clean for the dopamine function of an ex meth-addict to look anything like a normal person’s.

This anhedonia state can often lead to relapse in newly recovered addicts who are simply too depressed to go on living without a drug that they know can bring back a sense of normalcy to their life. The use of crystal-meth causes the sought-after spike in dopamine levels that helps relieve that anhedonic state.

When it comes to more physiological sort of withdrawal symptoms, the meth addict doesn’t have it that bad, I guess. After an extended period of sleep deprivation and appetite suppression that are some of the most predictable effect of meth, the average addict will do little more than sleep and eat for the first week, or even two, after quitting the drug. Many addicts experience substantial weight gain during this period as their metabolism slows and their caloric intake increases greatly. Like everything else, this too shall pass. With time, most addicts’ metabolism return to pre-use levels and their appetite catches up and returns to normal as well. Still, there’s no doubt that a little exercise can help many addicts in early recovery steer their bodies back on track.

There’s some research being talked about around the UCLA circles to see if detoxification from meth may help people do better in treatment for meth addiction by reducing the impact of their withdrawal. Detox before addiction treatment is an accepted fact in opiate and benzodiazepine addiction, but because of the supposedly “light” nature of crystal meth withdrawal, it’s been ignored. Hopefully by now, you realize that was a mistake.

71 responses to “Crystal meth withdrawal – It’s not like heroin, but don’t expect it to be easy”

  1. I am continually dumbfounded when I hear people reporting that there really isn’t much if any withdrawal from meth. This is extremely contrary to what I have witnessed and “not easy” is putting it mildly. How about depression, suicidal depression, not feeling, anhedonia, rage,extreme spine pain, frightening hallucinations, disorientation – can’t recall what the day or date is, after sleeping wake up not knowing if it is the same day or the next day. Can’t track sequence of events or activities. Memory is in shreds. Terrified to be alone. Panic attacks, feeling of heavy weight on chest, short of breath. Nightmares of meth and using, I call them meth terrors. Violent nightmares. Violent imaginings toward other people. Extremely low frustration threshhold. A sense of dread of the future and how they can possibly live.

    Anxiety. Jonesing constantly, all kinds of things trigger desire to use – a piece of milky glass, white quartz rock, bath salts. Intolerance of bright light, easily overwhelmed – especially by information. Sadness and feeling that close friends/family members are being mean. Tingling in hands and or feet or lack of feeling in feet. Feeling cold or chilly most of the time. Feel trapped.

    Thank you for this webiste.

    • Thanks for the comment Eve. Obviously I agree with you. Meth withdrawal is VERY real and should no longer be ignored because it doesn’t look like what people have learned to expect from heroin.

      • I’ve been around meth and meth users for 40 yrs from prop.dope to now days shards and I’ve never seen anybody go in to withdrawals they might get what’s called dope sick for a day or two and sleep a bunch but then there back to nomal. Meth didn’t even make the top addiction list

      • What do you think getting “dope sick” and sleeping for days is? That is literally
        the withdrawal from methamphetamine… as I mention in the article, it doesn’t look like opiate withdrawal, but it’s still there…

  2. My boyfriend has been clean for six years and has bad teeth and sever stomach problems. We know the teeth are due to the meth but he suspects that the stomach pain is some how connected to the meth use. Also, how long does the anhedonia state last because he doesn’t seem to have normal stress responses. He doesn’t stress about anything, ever, even whe he actually needs to. He gets mad sometimes but only with lots of provocation, like when his ex tells him he can’t see his daughter at the last minute. If you can shed any light or point us in the right direction to find further information that would be great. He doesn’t have insurance and he’s unemployed so he can’t get any treatment for his teeth or his stomach but I am really afraid for him. The emotional stuff is pretty importnat too. He has a lot of trouble making choices about things because he rarely feels strongly one way or the other. When I was telling him about how meth can affect the chemicals in his brain he wondered if he might have permamently damaged that part of his brain.

    • Thanks for writing Michelle. Six years is plenty of time for recovering a good portion of the dopamine function that had been compromised during crystal meth use. The stomach issues could easily be due to the meth use since the reduced eating while using crystal meth can cause stomach acids to damage the stomach’s lining. When it comes to emotional issues, I would say that it’s very possible that either the meth use itself caused alterations in his reactions to different environmental triggers, or that the issues he’s dealing with now were some of the underlying reasons for his initial use. I would suggest looking into some free or almost-free help in your area. If you live anywhere near a big city, there should be something available. You can use our tool, which should be available within a month or so, to do this.


  3. Meth withdrawal is horrible. People say that withdrawal from heroin is the worst. This is bullshit. Withdrawal from heroin is more physical than the others but it doesn´t mean it´s the worst. Strong withdrawal from any substance is terrible, even cannabis withdrawal. Strong cannabis withdrawal is like heroin but more emotional and lasts much longer.
    Meth withdrawal is more like cocaine withdrawal, maybe worse caused by low rate of dopamine and other neurotransmitters in the brain. If you use a lot everyday, slow down day by day, baby steps but don´t forget the goal. Your body will begin to learn how to regulate it self without the drug. It will take time but things will be ok.

    • Any drug can be addictive, i was addicted for opiates, for far too long. I have went threw withdrawels at my worst once a week, complete 3 day detox EVERY WEEK for an entire year. In fact i got so used to withdrawel’s i can take all the physical symptoms pretty well, not to say they dont suck. But the mental issues, the anhedonia i experience on a daily basis. Sitting in front of a computer clicking on a new program every 2 minutes because the old one got boring in less then 1. Wanting to go outside, then when going outside it not fulfilling the original desire so i walk back in to pace around for 2 hours. Its been 3 months so far. I however have disolved all cravings associated with the drug, i found the reason for my using was the anhedonia, and my body gets such a shock now from taking the stuff i lost all interest in it, or anything really for that matter. All drugs can do this to your mind. Ive even heard of it for pot with some people, tho i find smoking is an excellent tool in helping with withdrawels, and PAWS symptoms to SOME degree.Whenever you get attached to a drug, anhedonia can follow, whether because of a severe endoprphin or serotonin change, or whether you are used to doing everything on it. The only way to stop it is to find the root cause of use.
      ps. For 3 weeks now this has been my routine, i do take martial arts, but that is it, after that my routine consists of pacing around from one thing to the next. WISH ME LUCK lol 😀

  4. I believe withdrawal from any addiction is horrible. Each is unique to the individual’s perspective going through them and can never be discounted. As an addict myself, I never really have all the information that accompanies a individuals addiction, so I try and refrain from making blanket comparisons.

    I do believe in the statement ” Some are sicker than others” regardless of what their DOC may be.

    Adi, Great Blog by the way! I thought I had my alcoholism licked after 12 years of sobriety and relapsed which has ruined the last 5 years of my life.

    I’ve since put myself through residential treatment and have 9 months of sobriety behind me. Unfortunately, I’m still trying to find suitable employment with a college degree due to the destruction I’ve left behind.

    Out of curiosity, where you already enrolled in the PHD program at UCLA during your active addiction?

  5. Meth addicts do suffer a great with drawl from the drug, no matter what people say, it is awful. After using the drug on and off for 18 years(more on than off), I can tell you that the emotional roller coaster that you go on from the withdrawl from meth is not anything that i ever want to experience again. The choices I made were horrendous in the ways to hurt my family and friends and not even care. The hurt in their eyes wasnt enough to get me to stop, because of the false sense of happiness i received from the drug. Never do I want to go thru lying to myself like that again. And every addicts withdraw or detox from the drug is different, so peoples need to be selfish and do recovery for themselves and go the they need…..

  6. quiting meth is maybe one of the most difficult things anybody will go through. If you can get over the depression, anger,rage, sadness, hopelessnes, uselessness, and tore back feelings, then you can start the getting through the physical impulses of your nerves and sore body, along with extreme hunger and sleep deprivation. Then there,s only one thing left for the suferer to accomplish…. rebuilding thier life from a unorganized, cluttered, behind schedule, confusing, pile of debris, only to find many valued relationships and standards in serious need of extreme tlc! Good luck, and here’s some coffe for ya.


  7. I’m sorry, but I was addicted to meth when I was younger, and I’m a recovering heroin addict now. (Yeah, I like ALL the vices)

    Meth withdrawal was NOTHING compared to kicking dope straight. You don’t shit your pants when you’re kicking meth. You don’t have muscle spasms so bad it looks like you’re Linda freaking Blair, and you’re about to snap your own back in half.

    Okay – so we’ve covered this – when it comes to PHYSICAL withdrawal, heroin is king. And when it comes to mental, I’m sorry, but it’s a toss up. An addict is an addict is an addict. I don’t care what your DOC is. If you want to use, you’re going to use. You can use any “excuse” or “triggers” that you want.


  8. hi, I am currently a meth addict. I want to stop desperately, but my family doesn’t know, and my husband doesnt’ know. I would have to tell everybody first, and I just can’t do that. I have tried to get off of it by myself, and the depression I experience is too intense. I hate myself, and pretty much everthing for that matter. I wish I could just push a button and start this life over again…Recently my withdrawal symptoms have become like flu symptoms. I get the chills and feverish, and noxious. Has that happened to anyone else? I just really appreciate getting to say it out loud like this, even if none of you know me, ya know?

  9. Hi there for the person that put in messedup my BF would get the flu like sympt.He would just get panic attacks really bad and very tired really really tired and aggresive very agitated and very hungry and his back would hurt alot I think because he would stay up for days and he would work in one thing for hours and hours it’s hard for him the cravings are intense and he feels so lost confused he tried his best to be nice to me but he couldnt sometimes.

  10. Hey my fellow ex/junkies out there.We know we took a wrong turn in our lives but its NEVER to late to get back on track.My dad was a junkie and chose dope over family.I have been using drugs since 5th grade(Im 39 now) but never thought Id end up a Junky Monkey.You name it Ive been addicted to it and always managed to kick by myself.That is up until I fooled around and fell in love.Yeah,it started with Vicodin,then Norcos,then Percocets,and then it was OC’S.Yeah man,I was loving life for years until my FRIEND went to rehab and I was hating life.I tried to kick at least a dozen times and couldnt do it.So I started shooting H and H/Meth speedballs.Finally,one day my girlfriend confronted me and I admitted I was using and needed help.She kicked me out of the house and said she couldnt deal with it and had been living a lie.Not to mention we had a 14 month old daughter together.So I finally went to get help.My counselor had been a heroin addict for 30 years and had 15 clean.So I asked her if she still thinks about using and she said “hell yeah”!My dad never could get that MONKEY off his back so he became an alcoholic instead.Ive been clean for 28 days and its tough but Im not gonna put myself thru that shit ever again!Im currently taking xanax,ambien.and elavil to help me thru the W/D’s.I have been tapering off the meds so I can be dope free and get back to where I once belonged.Heroin took everything from me.My house,my girl,my job,my kids, and almost took my soul.Hey,nobody said it was gonna be easy but Im tired of just trying not to be sick.Its something you wanna have to change but even though it seems like its never gonna,it will.Trust me.Hope that anybody out there that thinks they cant quit will read this and at least try.Im a walking talking miracle from the clutches of Mr. Brownstone…..

  11. I quit doing meth about 5 years ago, I only did it for 4 1/2 years. That didn’t matter though, once and I was hooked. It was so hard for me to quit at the time, because of the pain. Somedays I couldn’t get out of bed unless I did meth to take away the pain. The withdrawl for me was horrible. I still think I’m going threw withdrawls even after 5 years!
    I have terrible anger issuse, I yell and get mad easily, and I suffer from depression. Ever so often something triggers a craving, and I can almost taste it then my mouth will water. It’s a good thing I have strong will power, or it would consume me. Not everyone understands the extent of meth addiction and the magnitude of the withdrawls. To this day I have to take copious amounts of advil for pain.

  12. Only a short term, weekend worrior, but after 2-3 days without sleep, the perfect solution is plenty of gatorade that day, 20 mg of diazapam and 400 mg Seroquel 10 minutes before climbing into bed. See ya in 18 hours, sunshine.

  13. I am the observer, but my daughter’s withdrawal seemed to be lots of sleep at various times throughout the day. I did not notice severe depression, but interesting to read as some depression, or at least inability to feel pleasure was most likely there. I think heavy marijuana use as well, or any drug for that matter, brings out the lack of joy; for example not appreciating nature, or the ability to just have fun. You feel as if there is that dark cloud around a person using drugs, so much negativity. I’m sure they hate what they are doing, and cannot see much beyond that. Those with personal experience know best, but it does effect all of us.

  14. meth withdraw sucks #&@ man i started using at the age of 15 now 17 an one year sober off that nasty horrible life destruction drug iv manage to stay of of it but its not easy i still have dreams about smoking it its hard man but i do it for my 7mnth old baby boy if i could i would tell those who are thinking about trying it to please don’t do it it you’ll loose everything just to get that second high i lost it all but bit by bit I’m putting things back together

  15. well i am thankful to all the info from all of you. My husband is doing meth and has been for atleast 10 yrs. We have a 18 yr old daughter and an 11 yr old daughter. Ive begged, cried, screamed, cussed n threaten to divorce him. nothing has worked. He always says the same thing, hes not doing it, he needs help, hes gonna get help nothing changes. He does loose his temper easily and sleeps alot. My brain tells me to pack mine n my daughters things n leave but my heart wants to stay n try n help him but i dont know how.

    thank you.

  16. Hi. I did meth for 11 years. I recently quit. It will be a year in march. So I’ve been clean about 11 months. I work out regularly and eat healthy. My boyfriend and I have done a complete 180. My only problem is I have no sex drive. I’m completely sure its because of long term meth use. Is there any advice on how to get my sex drive back, and how long does it take to get it back? Thank you!

    • Hi Adriana,
      Congratulations on 11 months! Fortunately (?) this is something I can speak to both from the research angle (dopamine difficency and more) and from the personal side. I had the same experience when I quit meth and it took a while, about two years, for my sec drive to recover fully (?). There are a few things at play here including the fact that once sex gets associated with meth use the dopamine surge that follows when both are present is not likely to be repeated without drugs and that’s just a fact of life, if a sad one. The good news is that as your own dopamine system resets you will start feeling more normal overall and will regain a good portion of that sex drive though obviously it’s tough to say whether it will return to normal… Whatever that is.
      Congrats again!

  17. Hi, i am been sober off since last 2 months and also taking some sych treatment along with homeopathic medicines, here in india, now being sober off since 2 months still i get the old dreams of taking it, also when i smoke my cigerete i get the feeling as if i am puffing the crystal, its like drawing me crazy, the withdrawl symptoms are so crazy that i hit myself, get angry on everyone, even on small things and really the life has become hell, as due to which i am not working since 2 months and even the financial position is making me worst to come out of this devil named meth….but i still love this devil to enter my life again

  18. I have a question. Is extreme anger at everybody and pushing everybody away you once loved normal for a person withdrawing from meth? He has isolated and also changed his phone number because he says he wants a fresh start. He said he just needs to be left alone, but continue to say nasty nasty things to people on facebook and text who use to be his friends, including me. We have all not responded to this his outburst but he continues to do it. I’m just not sure if he is being honest and really trying to quit or just getting so bad with his drug. I swear he is acting just like Charlie Sheen is that is why I’m confused…..any help would be appreciated. Thanks!

  19. I withdrew a little over 8 years ago.I t was a very long time before I really felt “awake” My sleep cycle took way over a year to fully recover and the eating was the worst for me,you just dont eat normally while on meth,so after i quit i ate like i was actually starving,which by the way my Doctor informed I was,It varies from person to person I think and dont envy the new person recovery.good luck ,its very worth it,this drug has NO happy ending except quitting!

  20. Good article, though I question the decisIon to put an image of a healthy serving of meth with an article on withdrawal and early recovery. This addict at least would be better helped without that trigger / reminder.

  21. I agree with Todd. I had to hurry and read down far enough to scroll the page down so I didn’t have to look at the dope. I have 75 days clen and sober today that pic made my mouth water. I enjoyed the artical and the replies.

  22. I am really glad I found this website. I have been in recovery from meth for 14 months. It has been quite the journey, but totally worth the hard work. Reading all the posts on here has brought back a lot of memories for me. Yes, it is extremely difficult to get off of meth. The physical and emotional withdrawal is brutal. I found that putting the lifestyle behind me was really hard too. My active addiction took me to the streets for 8 years. It is possible to climb out of the gutter and put your life back together. Just be patient(not easy, I know) and life will get better. I still suffer from the effects of my using, but it gets easier every day. It has taken over a year, with sleep meds..but I have slept through the night for the past 2 weeks now:) If you are suffering, please reach out and save your life. It’s never too late, while you are still breathing. God bless all of you.

  23. Meth withdrawal has been greatly underestimated by many people (and websites i check out on a day to day basis). I’m currently at the end of my withdrawal stage, but i’m not completely sure. Earlier, which is about 5 days ago, i’d get that heavy weight feeling on my chest, shortness of breath, panic attack and aggression all at the same time. And when i finally calmed myself down i could NOT under any circumstance be alone because shadow people and hallucinations of axe murderers would try to get at me. Once people were around me though the visions seemed to go away. It’s nothing like any normal person could understand. How many people can say that they can’t go to sleep because they forget how to breathe and sleep at the same time? i can, and i’m JUST getting over it, as i slept fairly well last night which i didn’t think would happen for a while.
    there IS hope for the recovering addict. i’m only 5/6 days into this and i can say that every day or pain, suffering, agony, depression, it’s worth it. it’s so so so worth it oh my god. i can’t wait to feel more like myself again. the next step after getting clean, is getting my life back in order :] good luck to the rest of you! i’m checking myself into treatment in two days. wussup ;]

    • Hey i understand completely about the panic attacks and paranoia. I have been off for close to 21 months now and im just starting to feel more like myself again. One thing I can say is that it does get better and better every week. I would also get the heavy feeling in my chest with my panic attacks- they were horrible, and sometimes I was also afraid to go to sleep for fear that i’d stop breathing. I feel like im doing a lot better (knock on wood). I still occasionally check closets and behind closed doors before i go to sleep. When I was doing research on the web, I didn’t find a lot of info about these panic attacks and i feel that people early in recovery should be warned about them cause they’re horrible.

  24. Meth recovery is no joke. I have 21 months clean as of September 14 2011. I am just now getting my energy levels back. If you’re just starting it’s gonna be rough for a while- but its definitely worth the struggle.

  25. I was hooked on the crystal hard, for 4 years. Selling it flat out so I was pretty much cooked 247. Staying awake 5-6 days sleeping for 1 no worries. Pretty fun times but I’ll tell ya that. Moved up north one day and funny you guys mention meth terrors. All the bad things iv seen and done come to me, lts been year and a half I’ve got on 3 times. Its like every 6 months it just over whelms me and I dream about the shot consumes my brain, I don’t use any other drugs sept weed now but only recently, just last night I had a dream I got stabbed felt do real, o was laying on the floor and everything was fading out around me, most of my dreams involve getting stabbed or stabbing someone, real vivid shit feels real. It’s true I can’t get the monkey off my back I still am obsessed with the hole gangster image, I now train kickboxing work hard and lift weights, figure if I can’t kick this shit I font wanna be at the bottom cause shit rolls down hill.
    Hang in there guys get your priorities straight. Don’t be a junkie be the boss an terrorize those weak cunts. Man up and don’t let the drug control you. Train hard learn to fight get your confidence back. Rock on Australia

  26. It is super difficult being on the other side boyfriend of 4 years and father of one of my children started using meth and our whole family went downhill…the pain of the kids asking for daddy, me not knowing even if he is dead or alive are overwhelming I’ve even thought of suiside…and the feeling of hopelessness..knowing he needs help and not knowing how to help him…good luck to all those out there who are recovering…believe me, there is no happiness like knowing that an addict is actuallu accepting the problem and getting help…

  27. i dunno why, but I found myself in tears reading the posts… I am 21 , and a meth addict for 2 years til now.. i smoke it almost every hour of every 10 straight days.. (but i usually take a 3-4 hours of sleep every 48+hours) so, 10 straight days of taking, then 2-3 days rest.. then another 10 days again.. that is my life routine for 2 years.. after taking it for 10 days, i sleep for the whole 2 days.. i only get up from my bed when my stomach is really begging for food.. and after 10 mins of eating, it feels like what i’ve done for 10 mins (which is only eating) consumed all of my whole life’s energy, so ofcourse, i will go back to bed again.. and one thing, i eat like I never had eaten for years.. alright, so… 3 days rest…. ‘3days’ is only 3days… but for me, 3 days without meth feels like already a month of craving…. i really crave for it and it never disappears in my dreams… i use to dream of taking it with my friends… and when i wake up, i’m craving it first more than my breakfast.. whenever i see foil in candies or cigarette packs, bottles, straw, bubbles, my craving gets crazy.. until it consumes me and trigger me to push the green button of my phone to call my supplier.. meth hits me with different effects… it always feel HAPPY when you take it with some friends… but when i take it alone, it hits my emotions to feel helpless, sad, hopeless, and guilt… one time it hit me that way, then i decided to call my mom and i asked for help… we talked in phone for 1 and a half hour..i cried the moment i begun to spoke “mom, i’m ashamed.. i’m addicted to ice” she still stood to tell jokes and stuffs but i can feel through her voice the pain, worry and her love… she cried right before we drop the call saying “i want u to be healed right now, please just come back home”… then on that night, i logged in to my facebook acctn.. and i saw in my homepage, my mom changed her status message saying “sad sad sad… why why why…?” many friends responded and asked her why.. but she never responded to her… i knew it was because of me.. that message striked me bull’s eye! i love my mom so much and i can’t stand to see her being sad because of me… i cant.. really never… so what i did was, i cropped out the page of my FB homepage and made it as my desktop background.. i also printed it and posted it my door, toilet, walls, and some of my stuffs… whenever i see her message, that fcking METH was nothing but a piece of a BOOGER compared to my love for my family.. now, I am preparing for my journey… this is my 3rd day of withrawal… my first time too… i’m scared.. but i’m really thankkful for this website… it really helps me super doooooper lot… i warned my bros and my mom and i asked them for their patience for my temper.. i asked them to understand me whenever i will get mad at them, coz that how it will go.. they just said to me, “oh, we will love to see you mad..” I’m very proud of my family… please pray for me…. i’m still afraid… but i know I can do this.. nobody forced me to withraw.. i was the one who decided to stop it.. so i think i have a great potential of succeeding.. oh god, please help us all…. alright guys, I’ll see u at the finals!

    • I feel your pain Carl, and I went through the same thing (my cycle was more like 5-6 days on, 13 hours of sleep, and back again for about 5 years). First of all, I know you can make it, and second, please write me as your going through everything, especially if I can be of help.

      Stay strong man…

      • thanks man… i think my first attempt of withrawal failed…. i feel sorry for myself and for the people who believes in me… withrawal isnt really simple….really not easy…..

        a theraphist once told me, dont feel bad if you fail, just dont forget the goal and stick your mind to it.. aim for it… and he said that the better way to start withrawal is to reduce the dosage time by time…. i dunno, but he warned me not to totally stop it, i mean, suddenly stop it, like 100% stop it..(do u guys understand what i mean?) coz my brain got used to the presence of the substance and if i suddenly stopped taking it (not little by little), he said the brain will undergo some serious difficulties for sudden adjustment, and that’s what drives an addict crazy…

        i dont want to be hypocrite, and i dont wanna lie coz it’s not going to make sense… my cravings got me and i went back taking it… but i think i’ve been reducing my dosage….

        to all the readers who are in the same boat as i am, don’t lose hope… always mix it with prayers and have faith..

        withrawal isnt a joke….. and again, i heartfully thank this page… it’s really comforting to know that there are some people listening to you, even u dont know them at all… it’s a really big help to know thatu r not alone..

        Adi Jaffe, thanks man for the response.. really appreciate it… i also want to ask, how did your withrawal went? and, after a successful withrawal, have you ever thought of taking a piece of hit?

      • I am a recovering meth addict who had a relapse a year later. The cravings got the best of me and they are coming back. I have finally gotten my back to normal but stress is building and so are those temptations. Thanks to blogs like this I have fought the devil one more time. I seriously cannot go through kicking this expensive , miserable habit again.

        One tip if I may that helped me was stop smoking it. Brake your pipes and just stop. I then snorted and still got the meth high to a point (had high energy and whatnot) but then stopping cold turkey was somewhat easier.

  28. Okay my son who has been on Meth for about 6 months and has been arrested. Will he be okay with withdrawl or not? Reading quit a few things here. I justy don;t know what to do if anything!

  29. hi gab

    i think 6 months of use is not a very long term of use compared to others who were using it for years or decades.. so i think, his addiction to meth is not that heavy.. he will do just fine during withrawal.. but in other side, my opinion is, it’s really important for your son to be straight minded and be willing to quit it. coz in what i have experienced during my 6 month of use, i use to tell myself that “i am just a user, not an addict” which sets my mind into thinking that there’s nothing wrong with it. until im using it for years.. i planned to stop it when i realized that i’m already facing the consequences, and when i saw the big changes it did to me physically, mentally and socially.. i hope your son wont let himself come through to the stage where he will regret everything.. i believe he can make it.. quit it as early as it can be.. and it is also important for you to encourage your son, have a talk with him an ask him hows his withrawal going.. dont be mad at him coz it will only end up to rebellion..

    i pray for your son’s success..
    i’m not being hypocrite and i still honestly admit that i’m still struggling a lot in quitting…

    god bless you, your son nd your family.. and me! and all of us! 🙂

    • Hi Carl, I so appreciate your response. He’s in jail and looking at time but I was concerned with the cold turkey withdrawal. I spoke to him yesterday and he seems much better. Its been 5 days. Now I’m dealing with the begging to get out for Christmas thing so he can be with his son and have been told that if I don’t get him out it’s my faulth his son will have to suffer. I’m soo torn, as his mother all I want to do is fix him and everyting but he won’t stay fixed. He;s 28 now and we;ve been going through this for way too long. I so wish you the best and pray you’ll stay strong and overcome this. Oh, he again said he’s not bad or wrong…..Anway.
      Thnks for responding I didn’t think anyone would.
      Blessings to you!

      • @Gab,
        how’s your son doing? spending christmas with missing a family member is tough i know.. but it’s better to miss one xmas than to miss xmas forever. I’m not a pro for this but i ‘m somehow, experienced.. i suggest a continuous rehab for your son, hearing from you that he never admits that he was wrong.. i mean, it sounds like he doesnt really want to quit. so i think medicines and therapy in the rehab will help. and ofcourse, you and his family are the best med for him. please try to open-up yourselves to him personally and emotionally.. he just might have something that bothers him that he needs to talked about.. dont provoke him to say that he is wrong, bad or somethin like that, coz I’m sure he knows himself that he was wrong, we, guys, have a huge selfish-pride. i guess that’s what brings him to insist that he’s right even though he knows he’s not..

        belated merry xmas and happy new year to you.. and prayers too..

      • and i forgot to share, when i was in my 6 month of use, i was also a bit same like your son. i mean, i never admit that what i’m doing was wrong, coz i use to tell my disappointed friends that “I’M JUST A USER, NOT AN ADDICT”. but not until I meet all the consequences and never ending changes in me. and became not only a user but also an addict. hope he realizes very soon what he’s getting up to. before meth changes him.

        meth is really tricky! at first,

        you will enjoy taking meth, then after a time…
        METH will enjoy talking you…

  30. Hi im A everyday user for 11years now. about a g a day. and thats with me sleeping for at least 3hours a day i eat just like every1 eles. im tired of this life the drama lack of energy. yeah its funny i started this for the energy. now i cant row outta bad with out it. hell i got to smoke before i go 2 sleep for when i wake up i got the eneregy to smoke in get the day started. it takes a half to roll outta bed. this life sucks so bad and unlike the thoughts of some peoples i am 1 that has remained myself and it has not changed me. im the person that every1 can count on if they need help food money or just some1 to talk to im there. im just scared if i stop now i know whats going to happend sleep but for how long hell i went to hi. on the 13hour plan flight i would start to fall asleep in my boby would titch so bad i had to sit on my hands cuz i was knocking over drinks peolpe where looking at me and my olady says my legs move all night when im a sleep hell i anit been able to really sleep without snoring in so long cuz my nose feels plugged up. i just dont want to lose myself when i quit. and the sleep i cant cuz i got to work i just dont know what to do. hell i always say learn from ur mistakes. ok i have the mistake just hard to learn from this one i know i dont want this life what do i do. im sorry just needed to tell some1 how i felt James

    • Hi James,
      Don’t be sorry, be grateful that you had the strength to share.
      I used daily for about 4-5 years myself, so I know at least something about that feeling of only really being functional for a few hours on the first day of a new meth binge. When I quit I weighed about 122 pounds and was stuck in a jail cell for a week. All I did was sleep, wake up to eat, and sleep again. At the end of the week I was done sleeping all day but I continued to feel tired for weeks and months after.
      I can tell you this – day after day and week after week I got stronger. I ended up getting my weight back and then some, which got me into a gym and working out. I’m probably healthier right now than I’ve been since I was 15 before I started using any drugs.
      It’s not the easiest road but it’s the one that can lead you back to a full life that doesn’t depend on smoking to stay up through the day. And you never know where you’ll go. I ended up getting my PhD and becoming a psychologist AFTER quitting meth.
      Good luck man, and check in as often as you need to.

    • @james
      11 years…. that’s a woahh! my roommate was a meth addict for 7 years.. and the first thing i noticed to his sleeping habit was, whenever he fall asleep, his breathing becomes irregular. that is right after he fell asleep.. and then as he inhale his chest and diaphragm pumps like he’s being shocked. he does his sleeping hours.. he also grinds his jaw (a lot). and sometimes kick his feet..
      anyways, based on experience, I agree to what doc adi jaffe said. i’m going through the exact same things he said.. being functional for just a few hours then dead battery again.. and also it is true, that week after week, i’m gaining my normal weight back, getting more and more persistent, getting stronger, getting more positive, and healthier. but i have to go back working out to gain those muscles i lost.
      i didnt do a clod turkey withrawal.. i started by reducing my dosage. and now, since the last time i got high, I AM 36 DAYS CLEAN (by MYSELF, no rehab, no doctors, no meds, no therapists) HEALTHY and PROUD!
      my trick was, i send all my salary to my mom (my mom knows i take meth) so every payday, i send all of it for her to keep, i just get a small amount from it just enough for my foods and stuffs.. and if i really have nothing to spend, i have no choice to not to take. and i will never ask my mom to ask for my money coz i know she will suspect me, and i will just break her heart.

      again.. 36 days! CLEAN and PROUD! haha I’m boasting this coz it was difficult! lol

      god bless yahll

  31. James, I don’t fully inderstand your struggle and only know about the drug because of my son. You only have 1 life, please just try. I am amazed at how much the body can take, my son is skin and bones from not eating but yet somehow keeps going. As a mother I will tell you my heart wants you to have a new beginning, I support you with prayer and hope…..Life is too short. If you believe in Jesus, I do, he can open the doors for you and give you what you need even when you can’t do it. James, your a special person, one of a kind, you CAN do this! Sending hope & love & peace to you right now….G

  32. Hello,

    Any info is helpful, because I know nothing about drugs and on the internet, you can type something in Google and find what you are searching, if its wrong or right.
    Im hoping experience or advice from people that have experienced it or know about it will help me.

    My boyfriend has just quite meth and every other drug. He wasnt an addict per se, he didnt use it every day, but he was using it on occasion for about 3-4 months, stopped, then again for a month or two. In the past he has been addicted to other drugs, much before I ever knew him (we are relatively recent). He used to drink a lot, do cocaine, he still smokes a lot of cigarettes and he was a pot head, smoking on average 3-5 joints a day from the age of 14 till about 26 with a few weeks off, one time when he was 15.
    This is the first time he has been on nothing other than that one time, since he was about 14. He still smokes cigarettes though.

    Heres my question, as he attributes everything to withdrawal but its hard for me to know, is it true since he wasnt totally addicted, could easily go without it, etc. if these are in fact symptoms of meth.

    A few things:

    -his anger hes apparently always had but its definitely increased without pot and other drugs
    -sleeping almost like a narcotic, sometimes he doesnt even know how he fell asleep.
    -eating like a pig
    -what REALLY concerns me, is this:
    2 things; first lately his sex drive has been less. I have to initiate everything and it makes me feel like Im unattractive or disgusting. The second part of this is related-he has told me that theres an odour down there, that he has never smelled with other girls, that has basically deterred him from wanting to go down there…we have sex and he claims he can smell it on himself afterwards. The thing is that I have only ever smelled myself and think its the normal smell- Ive had this scent my whole life from what I recall, and I have in the past known when there was a fishy odour and got antibiotics. I have also been to the obgyn since he first said it at the beginning and they never mentioned anything about a scent or any problem.
    So, Im hoping maybe there is some withdrawal symptom that makes him extra, extra sensitive or something to scents, and thats the issue. Any thoughts or ideas???

    Thanks very much, and any advice is very appreciated as I am completely naive to the substance world.

    • Hi concerned and thank you for writing,
      Meth withdrawal can certainly make a person do little except sleep and eat. And when it comes to anger, if he’s had this issue for a while and masked it with drugs there is no question that it might come back even stronger now that he doesn’t have his usual tools; he’s going to have to learn new ways to deal with it.
      Regarding your final question – meth is VERY much linked to sex drive so withdrawal from meth can definitely lead to drastic reductions in sex drive. I speak both form research AND personal experience here. The bad news is that it takes a while to get back, the good news is that it does return. In regards to smell sensitivity, I am not aware of anything, but that doesn’t mean it can’t happen. I would say this though – it is possible that he is frustrated about his reduced sex drive and is trying to figure out why it’s happening and that this is a convenient reason to blame it on. For a man, a reduced sex drive is a big blow to the ego, trust me, so talking about it isn’t very easy, but if the topic is brought up, he might have quite a bit to say about how he feels having lost a lot of his sex drive and likely being scared that it won’t come back.

      Good luck,
      Dr. Jaffe

    • hi concerned..

      i learned these facts watching a documentary film in youtube about meth. it says that, one of the most thing that brings pleasure to our body and brain is SEX. to make it simplier, meth makes the brain produce more pleasure hormones, so, MORE meth means MORE pleasure, more sexdrive. but when METH is overused, the brain gets overused too. the brain becomes tired and unable to produce pleasure hormones. and it takes time for a brain to get back from normal. so usual cases, meth addicts takes hard to feel pleasure, WITH or WITHOUT meth.

      just like me for example.. i only have the drive to make love when i’m high. but if i didnt take meth, i’d rather make myself up doing myself in the bathroom. coz i dont feel enough pleasure of having someone on my bed. hope my dopamine receptors comes back to normal.

      the temper issue, it’s normal for a user who didnt get enough high..

      and the eating thing, it’s just normal for a human body to eat like that when you havnt slept and eaten for days.. it just shows that the effect of meth is coming off.

      happy day!

  33. i use meth only on special occasions such as someone birthday, new years… i would say at least 10 times a year the most. will it affect my health later on?

    • There is some evidence that meth use can be neurotoxic even when used only periodically depending on dose. It’s much more difficult to say whether your meth use can cause problems without knowing the doses and the frequency. I would certainly stay away from multiple day use and high doses as those seem to bring about the greatest likelihood of serious dopamine neurotoxicity.

  34. My friend used meth for 12 years, but has been clean for 26 months… Until yesterday. We stood by him through rehab (twice), living in the streets, stealing from friends, you name it. What are we to do now? Encourage more rehab? He won’t return texts or phone calls and quite frankly I’m not sure how to walk this road again. His roommate is petrified as he’s only known the “clean” side. I’ve never been an addict so I’m well aware I can’t understnd what he’s going through. I just want to know what I can do, if anything. Thank you.

  35. Hello,my name is sammie. I am 21 years old. I’ve been useing drugs since i was thirteen, been liveing on and off the streets until now.well at least for now. I started useing meth 3 years ago and loved it ever since,stoped doing all other drugs and just strictly use meth,because of the meth i have lost my baby girl who i was 5 weeks away from giveing birth to,the love of my life,and hurt my family deeply. All with in the last year. I got real bad in it. I cant think straight,make any decisons when it comes to sertain things. I hope everytime i use meth and push that needle in it will be my last,I’ll od or my heart will give out. Because i just cant do it any more. I feel so trapped,I am trying my best to get clean,i’m finally liveing at home with my mom and my brother after allthese years,But i keep slipping,it’s seems to be more often now,I thought i was doing good when i first got home,but slowly seeing it’s just getting bad again,I need help,i feel if i dont get it soon,My family will have another funeral to plane. I know they cant take any more heartach. The death of my baby the guilt,the shame,the pain,everything thats ever happend or what i’ve done is comeing back and hunting me over and over,I’m so scared to sleep,not because of fearing of never wakeing up but afraid of what i’ll see when i close my eyes. I’m sorry for going on but i have no one to talk to, I’m in a really dark place right now and i’m trying to get out,i’ve been trying to get out for 10 years,although i am only 21 i feel i have walked a life,and i just cant walk no more.

  36. Hi,
    I’ve been with my boyfriend going on 8 years. He has been using meth since the age of 15 and is now 32. He’s been to rehab 2 times (about 6 months each time), been in jail multiple times for about a year overall so that’s about the only time his body has had a break from meth. He’s tried to quit MANY times but always gives in and uses again. When he uses it’s like he’s Superman. He’s calm, handy around the house, fixes/repairs everything, energetic, friendly, just wonderful to be around, basically Everyone Loves Raymond kind of guy. He’s been clean for about 1 week now and I got to be honest with you…he’s very HORRIBLE to be around. He’s like this monster that won’t go away. He can’t get out of bed, easily irritated, very very angry, mentally challenging my ability to remain sain. I just want to say “go use” so I can have my Superman back. I know that is not what I really want but he is just so hard to be around. How can I make him more comfortable? Are there any medications that can help his body fight these withdral symptoms? We are both going thru mental challenges right now but I want us to overcome meth! I just need some support so I don’t lose it.

  37. Hello, I’m about 40 year old male, used to do meth usually on the weekends (with would include E, weed and drinks while clubbing) I don’t exactly remember for how long but I’d say maybe from around 23 to 30..I’d go two days on and then not do it for weeks, etc.

    Anyway, I basically got my crap together and stop doing all this and didn’t even drink (beside the once in a while weed), got married, a real job etc.

    btw, I think the main reason why i did it again was for sexual reasons, freaken that stuff is great on it, but it really really really is not worth the prize you end up paying for it..I’ll settle for regular orgasms…

    About two years ago after divorce, job loss, etc I relapsed and did it and it definitely was not the same, I basically could not move properly for a couple of weeks and obviously my mind and body connection was way off, I rally had a bad trip while on it, I might have gotten some bad crap, who knows…

    Anyway, this past week I ended up running into someone who does it and tried convincing myself of my last experience and all I have going for me, great family, health, job etc but STILL F’N ended up hunting for it and did it!!!!

    Now this is a week after and what actually really helps me going and staying positive are things like meditation, working out, reading self help stuff but its been a alittle over a week now of about a half a 20 BAG of crystal (the other half went into the toilet that second night!!) and my mind is still not the same, I feel a block when I try and medidate or anything that involves concentration…will this go away?? and what the heck is happening..

    I hope to the Creator I never do this again!!! Im not in my twenties and it took a toll on me even doing it once and I”m a touch guy lol…I’m still recoverying, I like myself normal is best!!! coming off it was literally hell, heck, while I was on it was hell…I’d rather do self hypnosis and be in a natural trance alllll dayyyy,, its a way better high from my experience and its freaken freeeee, no come off..

    anyway, thanks for listening

  38. My boyfriend and the father of our two boys, 3 and 6 months has been clean from meth for approximately 3 years, 2 weeks prior to our first sons birth he stopped using. He started using in his teens. I have lived with some pretty scary stuff with him. Mainly abuse while i was pregnant with our first son, because of his coming down. in the past year to two years has gotten easier, but now that we are past that part of the drug getting out of the system and him NOT wanting it at the slightest look of some object or being arounds friends who used it, there’s a part of him that just doesnt seem happy. And with this forum i understand what meth does to a person and the after effects of how meth can leave a lasting affect. I am happy now that he doesnt use but I am not so happy that NOTHING ever seems to make him happy. Even after 3 years of not using. He’s still trying to get over the paranoia bit that sometimes is annoying. Are there things that we can do to make the process easier? Sometimes i am at my wit ends with him but i remember that he’s come a long way in these 2 years. I am very thankful that he does not use anymore but he still has that urge and i know he does deep down. He still smokes “pot” and drinks on ocassion but is that okay to use instead of meth. Or am i wrong and its just an addiction thing?

  39. Hello everyone, Well I do not use any types of drugs but my mother has been a heroin addict since she was 15 and has been on it my entire life.. She started using meth a couple of years ago but not all the time she recently came to live with me and my family because she was tripping really bad but I’m not sure if its from the heroin withdrawl (which she had never acted like this before) or shes on meth. And is coming down. Shes got flu like sympotoms which I’m used to seeing when shes on heroin but this tim she is just not herself shes seeing people and hearing voices, everyones against her and wamts to steal from her. She did not sleep all night I woke up to her standing over me in the middle of the night so I slept with her in the living room so she would feel safer. She doesnt want to eat relly either. Im so lost and dont know wat to do. I work all day and have school all night which makes it even harder. How long will she be like this?

    • Hi Yolly and thank you for writing,
      It’d be hard for me to predict how long these sort of effects might last since it sounds as if your mother would benefit from a neuropsychiatric evaluation if it’s possible. If she is withdrawing from meth (which means she stopped using), the withdrawal should last about a week or so (up to two) although if that were the case I would expect her to be sleeping often and to be eating quite a bit. It sounds like she might be on meth presently, which would explain the paranoia, insomnia, and lack of eating.
      If that is the case, it would obviously be important to stop the meth use for those symptoms you mentioned to begin going away.

      Hope that helps,
      Dr. Jaffe

  40. Hi, I have recently quit meth. I have been doing it for well over a year, and some of you might think that nothing – but I started intravenously. I am not proud of it, but it is what it is. I am glad I stopped picking my body to shreds and my colour is normal once more. I just don’t feel normal anymore. Maybe it is because I used heroin to fall asleep. I don’t know, but I definitely do know that I look angry all the time, and my co-workers and family members call me retarded. I feel retarded, I can’t even actually laugh. Will I ever be happy again? Or will I have to suffer – will my sperm suffer as well? I didn’t know what I had gotten myself into, it just felt soo good. Oh well back to my cubby hole I crawl to. Good luck and if you’re reading this and haven’t tried it, don’t start. The only good thing to occur is sobriety, and that’s a guarantee.

    • Hi Paul,
      The short answer is that things will indeed get much better. It took me nearly two years to feel normal again but I have to say that I’m either right back where I started now or pretty damn close (in terms of brain functioning).
      The important thing is to support your body with good food, exercise, and mental work that will allow your brain to rebuild.
      Good luck man and keep us informed!

  41. Oh and could you also tell me the effects it has intravenously? And will I recover? I have been sober for four months, quit smoking cigarettes and I don’t drink coffee. Thank you.

  42. I was a casual user for many years. Over 15 years and the best way to get yourself 100% is by putting the absolute best products fruit and vegetables back onto your body that you can afford. This includes vitamins and d juicing every morning. A typical morning juice for me is cabbage spinach beet root carrot lemon and pineapple a typical lunch would be salmon broccoli and cauliflower cheese. I gym 3 times a week and surf every spare chance I get. Take st johns wort and fish oil daily and vitamin b complex for energy twice a day. Don’t get back on the weed as it will eventually depress you more minimise alcohol and get 8 hours sleep every night. It can be done and of you want results fast then you need to committ to this sort of program. Fish oil lubes your brain back up where it has been dehydrated so take lots of it daily an your brain will recover and heal. Pot will stunt your sex drive recovery. For guys you can take boosters for testosterone like tribulus and long jack. If you want serious recovery then get serious with your program and you can be a superman without the gear. Take that!!!!

  43. It’s the worst having bipolar disorder for the past 11 years Insomnia for the past 15 And depression for is long as I can remember. I’ve been in the addict on and off for the past 13 years and for a good 6 years I thought I would never return to it until in 2010 I’ve been going nonstop smoking everyday and doing unusual things to get my dope because I don’t want to crash. I’m tired of this I’ve been lying to everyone including my psychiatrist but I’m too embarrassed to be honest now. For the past 2 weeks I been trying to get back on my meds and not use but the depression was so great and suicidal thoughts were so overwhelming I went back to using. I just want help I wanna get straight on my meds I don’t wanna live like this anymore. This article had me crying as well. I cannot get honest with anyone including my family. I will lose them again and I will hurt them which is even worse than losing them. I’m too embarrassed to tell my doctors. I don’t know how to do this anymore. Im much too embarrassed to come clean with my old aa group. I’m just staring at a wall and the kicker is I created that wall and put myself in front of it and now I have too much fear within to find the strength and walk away from it.

  44. Ive been coming up with my own questions, I used meth from the time I was 18 until I was 22. From that point I used alcohol to suffice. I’ve been sober for about 42 days from alcohol. I’m noticing sleepless nights. Aches and pains threw out my body bone sis in my wrist. Back knots. All kinds of joint pains and popping. Mentally I can’t focus on hobbies I use to love, drawing, writing, etc. Anger outburst. I don’t feel myself getting angry, I just go from 0-100 over the smallest things. I don’t get the joy from daily things that others do. Not so much depressed, I just feel confused worried anxious alot. No feelings things that break people down or people find importance in I don’t. I know theres a lot of physical and mental symptoms. I’m just curious why there just now starting and if there forever or is there a way to repair?

  45. My Dad was always a drinker till he found meth about 18 years ago. He recently stopped using because of health issues and found out he has hep c. My concern is his peranoia like hearing voices, thinking people are stealing from him, people are druging his food, spying on him…ect will this go away? he also thinks he is dying soon? is that normal withdrawl thinking? after 18 years of heavy meth addiction, is there ever going to be full recovery?

    also, he started drinking again.

    Does anyone have any advice so I can support his recovery?

    thank you

    • Thanks for writing CC,
      18 years of meth use is a long time and to be honest, has probably resulted in some irreversible, or at least very long term, brain changes for your dad. Still, there is much that can be done including supporting a very healthy diet, introducing exercise, and certainly cutting down or cutting off drinking for a while to allow the brain full recovery.
      You can contact me directly for more info. Glad to hear you want to support his recovery!

  46. my friend is currently doing meth & she wants to come off of it. i did meth about 3 yrs ago and dont remember having any of the symptoms shes having. she doesnt smoke it she only swallows it. i guess swallowing it doesnt do the same as smoking it? cuz she is able to go to sleep right after it wears off & she is able to eat….but what i dont understand even with regular sleep habits and eating habits when she doesnt do it she can still sleep for a REALLY long time like she hasnt slept all day….this is the only thing that is keeping her from stopping. she says that she has to much to do to just sleep all the time. does anyone have any advice for her?

    • Hi Imterested,
      Your comment gets at the core of what we’ve been saying here for a while – not everyone reacts to a drug in the same way. In fact, it is likely that different people will have very different experiences based on their biology, expectations, etc.
      It sounds like your friend is having the typical withdrawal from meth issues of long sleep and high caloric intake. Is she experiencing depression and irritability as well? She might need to figure out a long weekend when she can quit and catch up on sleep and eating but be able to be functional again when the week starts. Lowering the amount of meth she uses can also help with this.

  47. My best friend confessed to me a few days ago that she has been using meth again. She was clean for about 2 years after rehab. Today, she said she will just take “a little bit of heroin” that she mixed with water and snorted up her nose. I dont know what to do or how to make her stop. Please help me, I can’t let her throw away her life…

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